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Kuhn's incommensurability

2019-09-24 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- Kuhn's incommensurability,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了库恩的不可通约性。库恩在《哥白尼革命》一书中提出不可比较性这一术语,为其提出不可通约性概念提前打下了坚实的基础。库恩认为不可通约性是一种概念,是他在试图理解旧的科学文献中偶然发现的被认为是无意义的段落中浮现出来的。通常他们被当作作者混淆或错误信仰的证据。库恩认为这些段落被误读了,“无意义的表象”可以通过对所涉及的某些术语的旧含义的恢复来消除,而这些含义与随后的含义不同。所以,库恩在1962年《科学革命的结构》一书中首次提出了这一概念,即相继的科学理论之间具有不可通约性。

Kuhn had already mentioned the term incomparability in Copernican revolution, which laid a solid foundation for his concept of incommensurability. Kuhn sees incommensurability as a concept that emerged from a passage he stumbled upon in an attempt to make sense of old scientific literature that was considered meaningless. Often they are taken as evidence of confusion or false beliefs. Kuhn argues that these passages have been misread and that the "appearance of meaninglessness" can be removed by the restoration of the old meanings of some of the terms involved, which are different from their subsequent meanings. Therefore, Kuhn first proposed the concept of incommensurability between successive scientific theories in his 1962 book the structure of the scientific revolution. In my opinion, the concept of incommensurability written by Kuhn in the structure of scientific revolution contains three meanings. In a simple word, the first is the incommensurability of concept, term and reference. The second is the incommensurability of standards. The new and old paradigms have different standards and logic, so the problems that can be solved are different. Third, the incommensurability of the world view. Kuhn believes that the community of scientists under different paradigms has different beliefs and world views. Therefore, after a scientific revolution produces a new paradigm, there will be a belief or world view different from the old paradigm, and under the guidance of this, the scientists' view of the world has undergone a gestalt transformation.

After the publication of Kuhn's the structure of scientific revolution, the concept of incommensurability was criticized and criticized. Kuhn also broke with his colleague feyerabend, who at the same time proposed the concept of incommensurability. Shapiro, putnam, lakatos and others accused Kuhn of falling into a quagmire of relativism and irrationalism. Therefore, Kuhn perfected his concept of incommensurability step by step in criticism and criticism.

First, Kuhn, in his 1970 essay "responding to my critic," responds to the critique of incommensurability. Kuhn writes: "there are many who continue to believe that theories can be compared by appealing to a basic vocabulary of words all of which are unquestionably related to nature and necessarily independent of theory. Popper needs this vocabulary to prove that a theory has more space than the previous one." But Kuhn didn't think there was such a vocabulary, and Kuhn didn't think there was a universal theory. Kuhn argues that the meaning and conditions of both successive paradigms have changed in subtle ways, and that although most of the symbols before and after the revolution have the same meaning -- for example, force, mass, etc. -- some of them have somehow changed in the way they relate to nature, so that successive theories are incommensurable.

In response to my critic, Kuhn makes it clear that his concept of incommensurability is completely different from its original meaning of incomparability and its meaning of incomparability in mathematics. Kuhn analogy to explain the introduction of language and the translation of some knowledge, such as: the development of Kuhn in Dalton's atomic theory, he pointed out that "compound" means that a new kind of compound concept, as a result, the distinction between the terms "mixture" and "compound" of alleged object boundaries have changed, alloy before Dalton is compound, after is a mixture. Because Kuhn believes that communication between different language communities will be blocked, and Kuhn believes that there is no neutral language, there is incommensurability between the two successive paradigms. In response to my critic, Kuhn interprets incommensurability as the inability of different paradigms to communicate because of language barriers.

With the increasing criticism of Kuhn by philosophers of science and his continuous research and thinking, he may also realize that his concept of incommensurability has some extremes. So he partially revised some of his ideas in a collection of essays called the necessary tension, published in 1977. Kuhn believes that although communication barriers exist, scientists are not completely unable to communicate, but they can overcome these barriers to communicate in part. From the inability of the scientific community to communicate to partially communicate, from incommensurability to incompletely communicate. Kuhn called scientific communities of different paradigms as different language communities, and scientists involved in other language communities would create communication barriers. At this time, scientists could become translators to translate the languages of different language communities to achieve the purpose of communication. But communication is only partial, and barriers to communication remain. At this stage, Kuhn interpreted incommensurability as not completely commensurable.

Kuhn presented a new paper, "commensurability, comparability, and communicability," at the 1982 meeting of the American philosophy of science. In this paper, Kuhn has interpreted his incommensurability as local incommensurability instead of incommensurability between two paradigms. It also explains putnam's misunderstanding of incommensurability. Kuhn argues that translation is not interpretation. Although translation often contains or contains small interpretations, interpretation as a process is quite different from translation. Translation is the work of someone who knows two languages. The language used for translation exists before translation begins, and the fact of translation does not change the meaning of words or phrases; The translator systematically replaces words and strings in a given text with words or strings in another language to form equivalent text in another language. As for interpretation, Kuhn argues that this is what historians and anthropologists do. The difference between hermeneutics and translation lies in that the hermeneutics can only ask for one language at first. If the interpreter succeeds, he learns the language; Even if the interpretation is successful, that language may not be translated into the interpreter's own language; With interpretation, hermeneutics can find and understand words and words that cannot be translated in hermeneutics' language.

In the concept of incommensurability, the early meaning of words has been produced as a process of language change. Kuhn talks about historians' restoration of old meanings, a process of language learning that quinn describes as radical translation. Kuhn stressed that learning a language does not guarantee that you will be able to translate it into another language. Therefore, Kuhn challenged queen's translation theory in 1986 and proposed that incommensurability equals untranslatability. He believed that queen's theory of "thorough translation" could not be realized because of the different cultural background and the target, and incommensurability was equal to untranslatability. There is no French statement that refers to all MATS, floor coverings, and only English statements are true. In this sense, there is untranslatability in English and French statements. If language cannot be "thoroughly translated", then successive scientific communities are also untranslatable. In his 1990 PSA paper "the road after structure", Kuhn wrote about the principle of no overlap, that is, no two terms could overlap in their indicators unless they were subordinated. No dog is a cat, no gold ring is a silver ring, and so on. This is why dogs, cats, silver, and gold belong to each. Thus, if members of a language community come across a dog that is also a cat, they can not only enrich the collection of category terms, but must also redesign part of the classification. According to this principle, before the description of the world can be started, there must be some kind of lexicographical things that we can grasp and have a common category of classification concepts, which is the premise of barrier-free communication, including the communication needed for the evaluation of truth. The lexicology of different linguistic communities is different, and to bridge the gap between different linguistic communities, it is necessary to add a word, which is an overlapping word, which is related to an existing word, which is the exclusion of the principle of no overlap. Incommensurability therefore becomes an untranslatability. Members of one language community can obtain taxonomies used by members of another, as historians do when learning to understand historical texts. However, the process of allowing understanding produces bilinguals, not translators, but bilinguals have a cost of always using one taxonomy to make statements about others. This is the incommensurability between the scientific community, that is, untranslatability.

Only by understanding the development of incommensurability in different historical periods can we better understand its connotation. In order to make a correct evaluation of incommensurability and Kuhn. Through the method of historical research, I have sorted out Kuhn's incommensurability thought in different historical development periods, and I believe that Kuhn's incommensurability thought can be divided into four stages:

In the first stage, Kuhn first proposed the concept of incommensurability in the structure of scientific revolution. I think the concept of incommensurability in this period is quite extreme and quite misleading, because the word incommensurability in English means incomparability or incomparability. So a lot of philosophers of science have criticized Kuhn for this, saying that Kuhn's notion of incommensurability means that two successive paradigms are not comparable, but it's clear that two successive paradigms can be compared, and Kuhn didn't mean that either. So Kuhn, in the second stage of the shift in thinking, gives a clear answer to this in "responding to my critic." It also interprets the concept of incommensurability explained at the beginning as incommensurability due to communication barriers between the two paradigms. The third stage is Kuhn's retreat. He first explained incommensurability as incomplete incommensurability and then explained it as local incommensurability. In the fourth stage, Kuhn equated incommensurability with untranslatability, and later introduced taxonomic concepts to explain. Kuhn believes that because the two language communities are untranslatable, there is incommensurability between the two paradigms.

Kuhn by comparing different periods to the explanation of the incommensurability may safely draw the conclusion: Kuhn to own the concept of incommensurability is constantly improve, at the dawn of incommensurability concept, there are some extreme, because have a scientific theory is, indeed, you can compare, but putnam, summer peel and others think that Kuhn sank into the mire of relativism and irrationalism and there exists a certain problem. Because the five criteria for a good scientific theory that Kuhn Shared with the entire scientific community were: that the theory should predict accurately; It should be self-consistent; It should have broad coverage; It should be able to present phenomena in an orderly and consistent manner; New phenomena or relationships between them should be effectively foreseen. From this point of view, I think Kuhn is a "rationalist" rather than an "irrationalist". At present, the concept of incommensurability is still controversial, but Kuhn's explanation of incommensurability through translation and taxonomy has some truth, and there are a large number of examples in the history of science. Therefore, I believe that there is a partial incommensurability in successive scientific theories, but there is no better explanation. Kuhn has passed away, and to perfect his theory, it is necessary for relevant scholars in the philosophy of science to continue to explore, to give a perfect interpretation of incommensurability.

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