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The liberalisation of American Airlines

2019-09-25 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- The liberalisation of American Airlines,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国航空的自由化。1978年,《航空公司取消规制法案》的通过,正式宣告了美国航空自由化的开始。之后美国在国内航空运输业获得了一个更加自由的运营环境后,政府将更自由航空运输环境的争取进一步推向了国际市场。直到20世纪80年代中期,建立一个更加开放的规制体系的概念,从而被引入别的国家和地区。

liberalisation of American Airline,美国航空自由化,essay代写,paper代写,作业代写

In the history of civil aviation in the world, the United States pioneered the opening of the civil aviation market and the process of open skies. With the deepening of economic globalization, aviation liberalization, aviation market integration has become a new trend of civil aviation development. The process of American aviation liberalization is worthy of study, recalling the history of American civil aviation towards the process of liberalization, summing up its relevant experience, it is of great significance to analyze the new challenges faced by China's civil aviation industry in the process of aviation liberalization.

In the history of civil aviation in the world, the United States pioneered the exploration of aviation liberalization. Reviewing the course of American aviation liberalization, we have gone through the three stages of the deregulation of aviation regulations, the implementation of "open market" policy and "open Skies".

Aviation regulations are cancelled. 20th century 20, 30, the United States civil aviation in the early years, airlines are also in the initial stage of development. The United States Government is concerned that in the case of limited technical facilities and management of airlines, excessive competition in the market will lead to waste of aviation resources and to aviation safety. To avoid the devastating impact of excessive competition in the aviation market on the nascent aviation industry, the United States Government enacted the Civil Aviation Act to regulate and control competition among airlines. The bill expressly stipulates that the establishment of airlines, the entry into or exit from a particular route market and the formulation of fares must be approved by the government. In the same year, the United States established the Air Transport Management Committee. The agency is empowered to govern all issues related to international prices, routes, mail prices and aviation security, including the granting of the right to operate the airline. For the next 40 years, the Air Transport Management Committee has been strictly using its power.

In the 1970s, the operating conditions of the control airlines and the control of foreign airlines were very contrasting. According to statistics of the International Air Transport Association, the average guest rate for domestic airlines in 1971 was only 48.5%, up from 1977, and no more than 56%. In stark contrast, airlines, such as Pacific Airways in California and Southwest Airlines in Dallas, which are not under the jurisdiction of the Air Transport Commission, are well received by travellers for their fares are lower than the average 32%~47% airlines. The existence of this situation has also made the opposition to air regulation increasingly powerful.

A special report on the management reform of the American Air Transport Management Association was launched in the second half of 1974 after a Kennedy hearing in the U.S. Senate judicial branch. The report cites the problems existing in the Air Transport Management Association in the process of managing the air transport industry: "Excluding the possibility of new airlines entering major routes, protecting the interests of airlines with relatively low production efficiency, leading to excessive labour costs and excessive service costs in the air transport industry, lack of emphasis on price competition and price- The quality level of the trade-off, difficult to meet the needs of different customers.

October 24, 1978, when the United States President Jimmy Carter signed the "Airline Deregulation act." The ACT calls for the phasing out of air transport committees ' control over the entry and exit of airlines, fare changes, airline establishment, and so on, allowing airlines to enter the market, expand their business independently and allow free mergers and reorganizations. The Air Transport Commission was also revoked on January 1, 1985, marking the shift in American aviation policy from restricting competition to encouraging competition.

The implementation of the "open market" policy. The passage of the Airline Deregulation Act heralded the start of American air liberalisation. After the domestic air transport industry has gained a freer operating environment, the U.S. government will be more free air transport environment for the international market. From 1977 to 1985, the United States Government had intense bilateral negotiations with several countries. In March 1978, the U.S. government and the Dutch government to revise the Air transport Agreement for the United States launched a "market opening" policy set a model. The two sides agreed to downplay the government's regulatory role in capacity, frequency, bargaining and market. By the mid 1980s, the concept of a more open regulatory system had been introduced into many countries and regions, and the rules of the international air transport industry had changed in the signing of new bilateral agreements, and a freer space for international air operations had been gradually opened.

In the new bilateral agreement, the opening of market access is an important change, the increase in the number of navigable sites between States parties and the granting of a wider fifth freedom rights to air transport enterprises, the abolition of restrictions on Charter rights, and the right to authorize the Contracting Parties to designate any number of air transport enterprises to operate the agreed routes in accordance with their needs and increased the right to allow the replacement of the model halfway; In terms of capacity arrangements, the number of flights and capacity restrictions were removed; the principle of "double non-approval" was implemented in the management of tariffs, that is, only if the two governments do not approve the for tariff, the tariff agreement will not be valid, which means that air fares have taken a big step towards liberalization.

The advance of "open skies". In the more than 10 years since the signing and implementation of the "open market" agreement, a large number of emerging airlines have failed or been merged and restructured, and some big companies, such as American Airlines and United Airlines, have emerged in the US aviation market. These big airlines are not satisfied with the scope and degree of freedom of international aviation under the "open market" policy, and urge further air liberalisation.

In September 1992, the United States and the Dutch government signed the first "open skies" agreement, marking the further relaxation of international air transport regulations. Compared to the bilateral agreements of 1978, the new bilateral agreement fully liberalized market access, and the airlines of the Contracting Parties have the right to fly to any one of the other countries, breaking through the original agreement that foreign airlines only allowed a limited number of navigational points in the United States; in respect of the right of navigation, States parties provide unrestricted fifth freedom rights In the area of tariff management, the principle of "double non-approval" is replaced by free pricing, except that the government generally does not intervene in the formulation of fares in order to prevent the occurrence of discriminatory prices. The new agreement adds that airlines are free to sign code-sharing agreements or other commercial cooperation agreements.

In the late 1990s, after the European market was largely liberalized by a second package of measures in Europe, the United States had reached agreements with Singapore, Brunei, China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Japan and other Asian countries and regions to lift most of the restrictions in the air transport industry, opening up the "open skies" of the US and Asia. Market。 By May 2000, the United States signed a "sky-open" agreement with 60 countries and regions. In June 2003, the European Council of Transport Ministers authorized the European Commission to consult with the United States to fully liberalize air transport between Europe and the US. On April 30, 2007, the two sides signed the first phase of the "Open Skies" agreement between Europe and the United States, which entered into force on March 30, 2008. Under the new agreement, any airline in 27 EU countries could fly from any city in the country to any city in the United States, and vice versa.

The agreement, while providing new navigation rights for both airlines, provides a broad platform for cooperation between the European and American administrations and eliminates barriers to market access, capacity and tariffs for trans-Atlantic and further routes. The signing of the "Open Skies" agreement between Europe and the United States opened the curtain on the construction of the trans-Atlantic air transport market. To prevent air freedom from being wrong. While the United States has opened up an enticing condition for increasing the number of navigable portals or granting antitrust exemptions to partners in the process of air liberalisation, it is not to be overlooked that certain elements of these bilateral agreements still have an unequal nature. As in the "market opening" phase, the United States Air transport enterprises can fly from any point in the United States to each other in terms of the agreement on aviation market access, while the other country's air transport enterprises can only fly to a limited number of navigable points in the United States. For United States Air transport, the full liberalization of market access has been achieved, but is limited to other parties to the agreement. In the "Open Skies" agreement, the United States has a wide range of protection for its own airlines. If American carriers can bid for air mail shipments in the UK or other countries, but other carriers cannot bid for American air mail shipments, the General Post Office's International air Mail can only be carried by American carriers; American Airlines cannot hire foreign aircraft and crew, But they can rent their own aircraft to foreign airlines; the demand for goods transported by U.S. government contracts can only be borne by American air companies. It can be seen that in the two phases of aviation liberalization, there is an asymmetry in the agreement between the United States and the State party. Therefore, in the process of concluding bilateral agreements, how to deal with and retain the right to speak and to maintain the equal status of the two sides is another challenge for China's civil aviation.

We should diversify our aviation capital. In the European and American "Open Skies" agreement, there is an important content is to achieve the European and American aviation industry investment Open. In a new agreement reached on March 25, 2010, the European Union would make reciprocal arrangements if Congress approved a majority stake in American Airlines. This important part of the latest agreement shows that the opening of investment in the air transport industry is an expanding area of aviation liberalization, also means that there will be a diversification of aviation capital, which will also be a challenge to China's civil aviation development. As early as August 2002, CAAC has promulgated the "Foreign investment in civil aviation transport regulations", and at present the total utilization of foreign capital in China's civil aviation has more than 30 billion U.S. dollars. This data will continue to grow as the air transport liberalization process continues to move forward. However, China's foreign capital injected into the civil aviation Management regulations are not perfect. How to improve the investment environment and attract foreign capital to serve the implementation of the strategy of China's civil aviation is still a problem that Chinese civil aviation needs to think about and deal with.

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