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American preschool education quality assurance

2019-01-07 来源: 51due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- American preschool education quality assurance,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国学前教育的质量保障。美国的学前教育质量保障采取政府与民间相结合的办法,但在全国各州的发展水平很不均衡。无论政府是否介入质量保障,美国都素来有民间专业组织主导教育质量保障的传统,学前教育也不例外,都要接受民间机构的认证。学前教育机构自愿向全国性组织,如全国儿童教育协会,申请质量认证,通过机构认证成为该协会的会员。质量认证有一定的期限,到期需要进行再次认证。

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The quality assurance of pre-school education in the United States combines the government and the private sector, but the development level is very uneven among the states. At the federal level, project quality is monitored in response to project inputs, particularly competitive funded inputs. At the state level, the amount of investment in pre-school education is closely related to the degree of involvement in quality assurance. The less investment, or lack thereof, the quality oversight will be correspondingly absent. However, whether the government is involved in quality assurance or not, the United States has a tradition of private professional organizations leading education quality assurance, and pre-school education is no exception, and it is subject to the certification of private institutions. Pre-school education institutions voluntarily apply for quality certification from national organizations, such as the national children's education association, and become members of the association through institutional certification. Quality certification has a certain period of time, the expiration of the need for re-certification.

Currently, the early education programs of the federal government are guaranteed in the form of legislation, mainly implemented by the department of health and human services and the department of education. When it comes to grants, the federal government wants the money to be spent in a way that ensures it gets the results it deserves, so there are requirements for access, renewal, and quality of projects, which are specified in specific provisions of the relevant laws. Taking "enlightenment project" as an example, section 641, section 42 of the enlightenment act stipulates the relevant standards for confirming the project organization and the requirements for project renewal, and section 641, section 42 of the enlightenment act stipulates the supervision standards for the enlightenment project and the executing agency, so as to ensure that the quality assurance of the project can be legally guaranteed.

Under the enlightenment act, the authority to approve enlightenment programs rests with the secretary of health and human services. The winning organization will receive funding from the federal government every five years to carry out the early childhood education program. 's examination of the applicant organisation standards include relevant professional experience and the project plan, project plan should include faculty employment readiness, student-faculty ratios, budget and financial plans, teaching course, teaching method participation way, special education, children, parents and family plan, project quality control mechanisms such as specific KaoChaDian 17, 53. But overall, access criteria focus on whether the agency can provide effective, comprehensive and coordinated early childhood development education services for parents and children.

At the end of the five-year mandate for the enlightenment program, the agency must apply to the department of health and human services for a renewal. The department of health and human services (HHS) focuses on five aspects when reviewing the renewal qualifications of program agencies: the annual budget and financial status of the agencies; Whether the project meets the standards of the enlightenment act; Annual audit results; Whether the quality of classroom teaching meets the requirements of the enlightenment act; Project report. After passing the audit, the project organization will be eligible for renewal, continue to receive funding, and carry out the "enlightenment project" early education project.

HHS must conduct quality inspections of the enlightenment program agencies during the implementation of the program. Relevant regulations include: all project agencies shall receive quality inspection at least every three years; Newly empowered agencies must undergo HHS quality inspections at the end of the program year; If violations of the program agency are found, they must be reviewed by the secretary of health and human services within six months of the secretary's decision to violate the agency, or within 12 months with the secretary's consent; HHS may organize random quality inspections on an AD hoc basis without notifying the program agency.

In the United States, the development of public preschool education is very uneven. Among the 50 states + Washington DC, only 40 states + Washington DC have public preschool education program. States and the district of Columbia, which already have a public pre-school education program, also have large disparities in state funding and student enrollment. The average cost of pre-school education in Washington, dc, is $14,690, with the lowest states, such as south Carolina and Nebraska, both under $1,300. Washington, d.c., has the highest public preschool education enrollment rate at 94 percent for 4-year-olds and 80 percent for 3-year-olds, while Rhode Island has 1 percent for 4-year-olds and 0 percent for 3-year-olds. State regulations vary widely, depending on the cost. States that attach great importance to pre-school education have invested a large amount of funds to establish education, and meanwhile have also adopted relatively perfect quality assurance measures.

Take Washington, d.c., as an example, the government of Washington, d.c., mainly issues licenses, extends licenses and conducts quality inspection for pre-school education programs.

Any institution carrying out pre-school education program must be approved by the SAR government before it can carry out relevant education program. Licenses are awarded by the state government's early education division of the state education superintendent's office. There are two types of licenses: child development center licenses and family child development service licenses. The content of license examination includes: sponsor, organizational structure and management; Child supervision; Status of equipment and data; Education disciplinary situation; Student-faculty ratios. Indoor and outdoor environment; Qualifications and training of staff and workers; Criminal record investigation; The food and menu provided.

In addition, early education applicants are required to obtain a commercial site permit or residential commercial permit, an environmental lead free certificate, a fire protection certificate, a letter of recommendation with a good reputation if registered as a commercial organization, and a certificate to attend education training for children in the state education superintendent's office within 12 months. Applicants must comply with the health, building and fire safety requirements and lead free testing requirements of other relevant d.c. There is no need to apply for a licence if the pre-school education is run by or USES a government premises. The organization whose license expires must submit an application for extension, and only after the approval of all reviews can the early education continue.

The kindergarten in the United States starts at kindergarten, and enrolls 5 - year - old children, equivalent to preschool in China. Therefore, an important indicator of pre-school education quality test is whether graduates are ready to enter the national education. The pre-school entrance test is designed to test whether children have acquired relevant knowledge and skills in language and cognition, mathematical thinking, social and emotional development, scientific exploration, social research, learning and health strategies, and whether they can successfully participate in and complete various activities at the pre-school stage. A random sample of Washington public schools and Washington public charter schools is typically tested within 45 days of the start of the school year.

The main purpose of the quality rating and improvement system is to test the quality of pre-school education in the special zone by using the relevant data of the special zone, to determine the quality of weak schools and give corresponding support. All preschool education programs in the d.c. In addition to using data from accreditation bodies, QRIS also evaluates pre-school education institutions. The evaluation criteria of QRIS mainly include six aspects: project management, learning environment, classroom management, family participation, faculty qualification and license compliance.

In order to ensure that all pre-school education institutions have Standards to follow in their daily education activities and effectively help them ensure a high level of education quality, experts organized by the state education superintendent office formulated two guiding documents: District of Columbia Common Core Early Learning Standards and pre-school education Standards and teaching activities. The former provides clear education objectives in different fields for different stages of pre-school education, while the latter provides a practical example for the teaching practice of pre-school education. This article mainly introduces the former.

The early education universal core standards for the d.c. The nine areas are: methods of learning and logical thinking; Communication and language development; Literacy; Mathematics; Scientific exploration; Social studies; Art; Social - emotional development; Physical development/health and safety.

The 34 criteria under the nine areas have different specific requirements for each age group and provide observation points. For example, in the field of methods for learning and logical thinking, the third one, which can flexibly apply methods to solve problems, requires different age groups: infancy, just emerging; In early childhood, he can observe others solving problems and imitating, such as observing teachers playing hide-and-seek with other children and participating in games. When I was 2 years old, I would use a trial-and-error strategy to ask for help, such as standing on a small stool to reach a toy on a high place. If I could not reach the toy, I would ask the teacher for help. 3 ~ 4 years old, do not have to try all the way to find a solution to the problem, learn to change the strategy, such as a time can not hold three balls to find a car to transport; At the end of pre-school education, they use different methods to solve problems and can propose cooperative activities, such as saying to other children, "let's make a car with this box".

Some fields, such as scientific exploration and social research, may not require children between 0 and 3 years old, while some only require some at the end of pre-school education, and provide observation points.

Generally speaking, a pre-school education program must be approved by the state government and obtain a business license, which is the guarantee measures taken by the government on the quality of pre-school education at the entrance. But beyond that, not all states have adequate, long-term, procedural quality assurance for all pre-school education programs. In order to maintain the quality of education, some civil groups have conducted quality certification for early education institutions, and parents and society can also judge whether a education institution is qualified according to its certification.

Early education certification is carried out by industry-wide organizations in different fields, consisting of early education institutions. They include the National Association for the Education of Young Children, the Association for Early Learning Leaders/National Accreditation Association for Child Care and Education, and the National Early Childhood Program Accreditation, the National after School Association and the National Association for Family Child Care. Different early education projects can choose a certification body to accept the certification according to their own needs.

Founded in 1926, the national children's education association is the largest and most influential non-governmental children's education organization in the United States. It has a wide range of functions, and certification is just one of them. Currently, there are 6,883 pre-school education programs certified by it nationwide. It not only certifies the pre-school Education program, but also the pre-school Education associate degree program. At the same time, it is also responsible for certifying the National high-quality Education postgraduate program, which is part of the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education. Taking the certification method and standards of education program as an example, this paper introduces the private certification of education program in America.

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