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留学生作业代写:Principled negotiation in international business negotiations

2017-09-19 来源: 51due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- Principled negotiation in international business negotiations,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了国际商务谈判中的原则式谈判。原则式谈判,强调的是公正原则和公平价值,是一种基于双赢的谈判方式。在原则式谈判中,我们要多站在对方的角度思考问题,正确地对待情绪,做一个积极的聆听者。

Principled negotiation,原则式谈判,assignment代写,paper代写,留学生作业代写

The principle-type negotiation emphasizes the fair principle and the fair value, and it is a kind of negotiation method based on the mutual benefit. Based on the principle-type negotiation, this paper expounds the characteristics and basic principles of the principle-type negotiation and its application in the business negotiation. Practice has proved that the use of the principle of negotiation in business negotiations is very safe, almost to meet all the negotiations.

With the development of economic globalization, the economic relations between countries have deepened. Business negotiation is a method and means by which the seller and the buyer carry out the activities in order to facilitate the transaction, or to resolve the dispute between the buyer and the seller. There are many factors involved in business negotiation, the needs and interests of negotiators are expressed in many aspects, but the realization of benefits is almost the core content of all business negotiations. In business negotiations, any party will do its best to win the benefit, therefore, there is bound to be a situation where the benefits are difficult to reconcile, and to convince the other party that it is necessary to use certain objective and fair criteria so that the other party accepts the condition without feeling a loss or condescension, so that the negotiation can be settled fairly. Principled negotiation is a 1981 by Harvard University Roger fischer and Ury, also known as the Harvard Negotiation Law, is a mutual-benefit, based on the interests of the cooperative negotiation method, widely used in various negotiation activities.

Negotiation is usually divided into two styles, soft negotiation and hard negotiation. In soft negotiations, negotiators try to make concessions in order to reach an agreement, always hoping to negotiate a happy agreement, or at least a deal to meet the basic interests of each other rather than empty-handed. Hard negotiations, also known as stand-by negotiations, negotiators regard negotiation as a form of willpower competition, always insisting on their position, that the tougher side of the party will eventually gain more. According to Roger fischer 's view, neither of these negotiating styles is an ideal way to negotiate. In comparison with soft negotiations, principled negotiations also pay attention to maintain a good relationship with each other, but not as soft negotiations only emphasize the relationship between the two sides and ignore the equity of interests. As opposed to hard negotiations, principled bargaining advocates reconciling the interests of both sides rather than being entangled in positions. Therefore, principled negotiation is neither a soft negotiation nor a hard negotiation.

Roger fischer and Ury point out that negotiators are first people and that in the process of negotiation both substantive issues and relations between negotiators are dealt with. So for the cooperation of the two sides, we should separate the people from the things. To achieve the separation of people and problems, we should start with the following aspects.

Most of the time, the conflict is not caused by objective things, but by both sides to see the idea of things caused, so to stand in the other side of the angle to think about the problem to understand each other's emotions. There is a problem not to blame each other, it is easy to be resistant to the mood, if this emotion is brought to the negotiating table, will affect the negotiations.

There are contradictions in business negotiations, so try to control their emotions, one side of the mood will affect the other side of the mood. Allow the other person to vent their emotions, to remain calm, listen to the other side of the story, not affected by the other emotional.

Negotiation is a process of communication and a common decision is made through communication. Therefore, in the process of negotiations to be a positive listener, avoid the other side as a debate opponents, endless debate will not solve the problem. Not to criticize each other's mistakes, this will hurt each other's feelings.

A Japanese company buys calcium carbide from a Chinese company. The two sides have been working together for five years, when we talked about the price last year, the Japanese side pressed the Chinese $30/ton and the transaction price was 410 USD/ton. This year it will be $20/ton, or $390/ton. The Japanese side claims that several other companies offer lower prices, with $370/ton and $390/ton. Given that the two sides have cooperated for so long, Japan has asked the Chinese side to give in to the price. The Chinese survey found that $370/ton was the price of the self-employed, and $390/ton was supplied by the factory with smaller production capacity. So the factory director and the company's negotiating representatives of a total of 4 people formed the negotiating group. Before the negotiations, the factory director and the Chinese company negotiators agreed on the price, in order to keep the factory continuous production, the factory can be sold at $390/ton. The company negotiator also reports to its supervisor, the supervisor believes that the price can not be less than 400, because it is a large company, speaking quality. Negotiation can be flexible, mild attitude, but the interests of the most important, the negotiations can not be a lot of price reduction, if more than 400 dollars can be a deal, if not, also to the price of 405-410 U.S. dollars, and then the competent leadership to talk about. The Chinese company negotiator conveyed the supervisor's advice to the factory director, and the factory director, who had negotiated the condition at the negotiating table, ended up with $400 in L0 USD/ton, a price of $10/ton more than the factory director expected. The factory representative is very satisfied. In this case, the Chinese side separates people from things, is gentle with people, and pays attention to principles, and the Chinese side has not established a good relationship with Japan for five years, ignoring the acquisition of benefits.

Position refers to the request of the other party, the interest is the other side of the internal reasons for the request. Focusing on interests rather than positions means the realization of the interests of both sides in business negotiations, and unilateral adherence to one's own position will only make negotiations deadlocked or even rupture. There are multiple benefits behind any negotiations, and the negotiators should try to find these benefits. The focus on interests, not positions, can be addressed in two ways:

Explore the interests of the other party that will cause harm to us. The negotiating position is often clear and concrete, but the hidden interests behind the position are intangible, and may be uncertain, how to determine the interests of the negotiations? The basic approach is to look at the problem from their perspective, analyze their position and ask themselves: "Why did they do it?" "It is not to prove that their position is correct, but to understand the needs or desires behind these positions," he explained. If you can meet their needs or desires, then the probability of reaching an agreement increases.

The purpose of the negotiations is to meet their own interest needs. If the two sides were to communicate, the chances of achieving that goal were increased. If both sides are not clear about their interests, how can they get rid of the constraints of their position and discuss the issue of interests? If you want the other person to consider your interests, you must explain your interests, if you want to understand your interests, you should first express understanding of each other's interests. In addition to demonstrating that you also understand his interests, you should admit that his interests are part of the problem you want to solve. This is easy to do when both of you have common interests.

In the 1980s, a Chinese bicycle manufacturer and an American bicycle importer were deadlocked over the number of models they produced. U.S. importers want the Chinese to produce four types of bicycles to give customers more choices, and Chinese producers can only produce two because of the high cost of research and development. China's position is that it can only produce potential benefits to reduce production costs. The US side's position is to want four models, and the potential benefits are to gain more by selling more bicycles. If both sides insist on their position, the negotiations can only be deadlocked. Finally, the two sides negotiated to clarify their own interests. China can produce four kinds of models, but must raise the unit price, thus, the research and development cost is spread to each bicycle, the US side also gladly accepts in the negotiation, the people are very easy to fall into the bargain which insists on their position, because many people think the negotiation is the type of winning. This dichotomy limits people's minds, restricts people's creativity, and negotiators stare at whether the outcome of the negotiations is lost or won. There are four reasons for this thinking. First, immature judgments, many people believe that the negotiation of the purpose of negotiations is the outcome of a win-lose, this rigid concept of the flexibility of the negotiations. Second, only to find an answer, that is to defeat each other, to win. Third, both sides think the cake size is fixed, you get more than I get less. The solution is to change the idea and make the cake bigger so that both sides can gain greater benefits. IV. Consider your own interests only when considering solutions.

The programme and evaluation programme will be proposed separately, and the programme should be followed by a decision. Arrange for a few colleagues or friends to propose as many options as possible, regardless of whether these options are good or bad, realistic or unrealistic, and then evaluate the feasibility of these options.

To identify the common interests of both sides, every negotiation has a potential common interest, these common interests may not be recognized at first, the common interest is the opportunity, need to actively seek, rather than the gift of God. Stressing the common interests of both sides will make the negotiations smoother.

Whether a negotiation succeeds depends on whether the other person's decision is what you want, so you should help the other person to make the decision easily. If your proposal does not appeal to the other party, the negotiations will not be possible.

A developing country intends to import candles from our country, the negotiations of the beginning of the situation is very smooth, on the other side of the type of candles required, delivery time, payment methods and other matters are basically agreed, and order quantity is relatively large. But when it comes to price, the two sides are divided, although we have repeatedly stated that it is the lowest price, the other side is still resolute. The other side is also very clear that the Chinese export to Europe and the United States and Japan prices are much higher than this price, a temporary deadlock between negotiations. So the Chinese negotiators announced a moratorium on the negotiations, arranged for a few days to travel on behalf of the other party to ease the atmosphere, while using the time of the day to investigate the use of candles in the local use, dosage, usage and purchase level. The survey found that most of the country's rural areas are poor and short of electricity, buying candles for illumination, and not caring about the shape and packaging of candles. So the Chinese take the simplest shape, this can save the mold fee, packaging also used practical and strong ordinary packaging, so that the cost is greatly reduced. When the two sides returned to the negotiating table, they found that the deadlock had been resolved.

In international business negotiations, despite the efforts of both sides to find the best mutually beneficial solution, there is always conflict of interest and confrontation. When the two sides are unable to determine the rationality and fairness of the scheme because of the different evaluation criteria, the best solution is to introduce objective evaluation criteria.

In China and the United States in the negotiations on China's accession to the WTO, the two sides on the status of China's developing countries have been hotly debated. Accession to the World Trade Organization in the capacity of developed countries is not entitled to the privileges enjoyed by developing countries. In order to tap China's big market, the United States to gain greater interest in market access, insist on China's status as a developed country to join the WTO. On this issue, the two sides have their own views, the United States insists that China's foreign exchange reserves in the forefront, aerospace technology reached the level of developed countries, the people's living standards are more than many developing countries. In fact, international organizations such as the United Nations and the World Bank have a ready-made measure of GNP per capita. According to the United Nations and World Bank statistics, per capita GNP below $785 for poor countries, while China is $750, so it belongs to poor countries.

Whether the objective criterion is fair or not, it should be viewed from two aspects, one is the real interest and the other is the process. The principle of not damaging the interests of both parties is in the real interest. Judging from the processing procedure, the procedure should be fair. For example, a cake, one side of the cake to make the other one to choose first. Other fair procedures include drawing lots, taking turns and seeking arbitration.

Principled negotiations provide us with a way to reach sensible agreements in difficult negotiations. The practice proves that the principle-type negotiation law almost adapts to all the negotiation situations, from international negotiations to domestic negotiations, from simple events to complex events. The use of principled negotiation in negotiations is very safe, as the principle of negotiation is not based on the tactics and resourcefulness of the negotiators, but on impartiality, objectivity and mutual understanding.

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