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The U.S. oil reserve system

2019-02-12 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- The U.S. oil reserve system,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国的石油储备体系。美国的石油储备与其经济、政治发展密切关联,包含了国家战略储备和企业商业储备两大部分,具备了规模庞大、制度健全等特点。另外,美国的石油储备主要包括国家战略储备和企业商业储备。国家战略储备由国家所有,政府决策,以保障石油稳定供给为主要目的。企业商业储备则完全由企业所有,自主经营,以保障企业生产和盈利为主要目的。

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The economic development of the United States is greatly affected and restricted by oil supply. According to the U.S. department of energy, a doubling of the international oil price will reduce the total U.S. GDP by 2.5%. For every $10 increase in oil prices, the U.S. economy loses about $50 billion. Meanwhile, America's dependence on foreign oil is more than 50%. In addition, the main source of imported oil in the United States is political instability in some countries, which has a great impact and threat on the stable supply of oil. Therefore, for the United States, a sound and efficient oil reserve system plays a vital role in ensuring energy supply, supporting economic development and maintaining social stability.

The petroleum reserve of the United States mainly includes national strategic reserve and enterprise commercial reserve. The national strategic reserve is owned by the state and the government makes decisions to ensure the stable supply of oil. The enterprise commercial reserve is completely owned by the enterprise, independent management, in order to protect the enterprise production and profit as the main purpose.

The U.S. national strategic reserve is managed by the department of energy, which is authorized by the U.S. government. The assistant secretary for petrochemical energy is responsible for the management of the four national strategic reserve bases through the department of energy's strategic petroleum reserve program management office in New Orleans. The office, which has branches at each of the reserve sites, has about 125 full-time federal employees. Routine maintenance, commissioning and management of oil reserves are outsourced to professional companies.

Draft decisions related to the national strategic reserve were initially developed by the department of energy, the Treasury Department and the White House budget office and then presented to the President. If the President agrees, it will be formally submitted to congress for consideration. Only after the approval of congress, the national strategic reserve relevant decisions can take effect. Once the decision was made, the specific operation was implemented through bidding and unified deployment by the department of energy.

All costs related to the national strategic reserve of the United States, including the construction of oil storage, the purchase of oil and the daily operation and management of the costs are paid by the federal finance through the national budget allocation, and the SPR and SPR oil accounts are specifically set. The SPR accounts cover the construction, operation and maintenance of the reserve base, as well as management, research and staff salaries. The SPR oil accounts are used to pay for crude oil purchases, pipeline storage and transit costs, and import duties. The SPR's oil accounts also receive sales of oil reserves.

The us national strategic reserve system began in the 1920s, was brewing in the 1940s and 1950s, was formally established in the 1970s, gradually improved in the 1980s and 1990s, and has remained stable since the 1990s. Specifically, in 1923, the United States established the Alaska national petroleum reserve to provide fuel reserves for the U.S. navy, thus setting a precedent for national oil reserves. From 1944 to 1956, then-interior secretary Harold ickes, the national mineral resources policy council of the United States, and former President Eisenhower proposed the idea of establishing a national strategic reserve system, but it failed to be realized for various reasons. In 1975, in order to deal with the oil crisis caused by the Middle East war, former US President ford signed the energy policy and reserve act on December 22, 1975, and formally approved the construction of the us national strategic reserve system. Construction of the system began in 1976, and oil reserves began on July 21, 1977, eventually forming a reserve capacity of 700 million barrels.

The construction and operation of the commercial reserve of American enterprises are completely determined and implemented by enterprises independently. Companies have no legal obligation to store oil reserves, and the government has no right to directly intervene in their activities. Enterprises can independently decide the size of oil reserves and make operation plans according to their own strength and market supply and demand.

America's oil reserves are huge. According to the data of the us energy information administration, by the end of December 2012, the total oil reserves of the us were 1.748 billion barrels, among which the national strategic reserves were 695 million barrels, accounting for 38.96% of the total reserves. Corporate and commercial reserves reached 1.089 billion barrels, accounting for 61.04% of the total. It is worth noting that us oil reserves are not only large, but have been steadily rising.

The U.S. national strategic reserve is made up entirely of crude oil and is primarily held at four reserve sites. Among them, Bryan Mound has a total storage base of 250 million barrels and a daily supply of 1.5 million barrels. The Big Hill storage base has a total of 155 million barrels of reserves and a daily supply of 1.1 million barrels per day. The total reserves of West Hackberry storage base are 217 million barrels, and the daily supply is 1.3 million barrels per day. The total reserves of Bayou Choctaw storage base are 73 million barrels, and the daily supply is 550,000 barrels per day. If the four bases are fully supplied, the daily supply can reach 4.45 million barrels per day.

The U.S. national strategic reserve is concentrated in the gulf coast states of Texas and Louisiana.

Different from the national strategic reserve, the commercial reserve of American enterprises contains crude oil and various other petroleum products, including gasoline, fuel ethanol, aviation fuel, domestic oil, etc., and is widely distributed in petroleum and petrochemical enterprises throughout the country.

The us government is fully responsible for the acquisition, storage and utilization of the national strategic reserve with strict conditions and procedures. As the operational assets of an enterprise, its commercial reserves are under the indirect guidance of the state and under the independent control of the enterprise.

All the storage decisions of the national strategic reserve of the United States are jointly formulated by the department of energy, the Treasury Department and the White House budget office, proposed by the President and approved by the congress. The office of the strategic petroleum reserve of the department of energy is entrusted to organize and implement the decisions through market-oriented public bidding. In addition to the direct procurement of oil, the U.S. government has implemented three non buy national strategic reserve collection and storage measures, these three measures can not only help us to earn a certain profit, offset part of the oil reserve operating costs, and can actually increase the total petroleum resources in the presence of the United States, expand resources potential sources of American oil reserves.

The use of us national strategic reserve has strict conditions and normative system. Specifically, the use of the us national strategic reserve is mainly carried out by means of auction sale. The us department of energy specially formulated the "standard sale terms", which made strict provisions on the use of sales methods and procedures. The us national strategic reserve can be used in four ways:

Under the law, only in the event of a "serious interruption of energy supply" can the President issue a blanket order. To be specific, "severe energy supply interruption" includes the following situations: emergency oil supply interruption occurs, and the oil supply interruption covers a wide range and lasts for a long time; Could have serious negative implications for national security and the economy; The emergency has led to a surge in the price of petroleum products; The sharp rise in the price of petroleum products is likely to have a serious negative impact on the national economy.

According to the law, the President can issue a limited use order when there is a possibility of a large and prolonged oil supply shortage at home or abroad, and take limited use measures to avoid or reduce the negative impact of the shortage on the economy. At the same time, the limited use must also meet the following requirements: when the use, the national strategic reserve shall not be less than 500 million barrels, the total amount of use shall not exceed 30 million barrels, and the use time shall not exceed 60 days.

By law, the U.S. secretary of energy has the authority to test the effectiveness of the national strategic petroleum reserve system and its procedures. And no more than 5 million barrels will be used.

In this way, national strategic reserves and corporate commercial reserves are exchanged temporarily to solve the production difficulties of oil enterprises due to the quality of oil products or short-term regional energy shortages. Typically, such exchanges have clear quantitative and temporal limits.

Since the establishment of the national strategic reserve system in the United States, there have been six large-scale USES, mainly for the purpose of influencing the international oil price, meeting consumer demand, alleviating financial crisis and coping with natural disasters. Specifically, the first large-scale operation was on October 26, 1990, solstice and April 5, 1991. The total amount of the operation was 21.114 million barrels, mainly used to meet the oil consumption of the us army during the gulf war. The second operation was conducted on October 13, 1995, solstice and November 6, 1998. The total amount of the second operation was 28.2370 million barrels, mainly used to alleviate the budget deficit of the us government. The third operation was conducted on September 22, 2000, solstice, and March 30, 2001, with a total amount of 3 million barrels, mainly used to ease the winter heating oil shortage in the northeastern United States. The fourth operation, on September 2, 2005, solstice and January 6, 2006, involved 16.20 million barrels of oil, mainly in response to the massive shutdown of oil fields caused by hurricane katrina in the gulf of Mexico. The fifth operation was conducted on August 8, 2008, solstice and December 26, 2008, with a total amount of 5.391 million barrels, mainly used to cope with the international oil price shock caused by the global financial crisis. The sixth operation took place on July 17, 2011 and August 31, 2011. The total amount of the operation was 3 million barrels, mainly used to stabilize the international oil price fluctuations caused by the political change in Libya.

The acquisition and utilization of the commercial reserves of American enterprises are completely dominated by the market and mainly aimed at economic interests. The government indirectly guides enterprises' behaviors by publishing supply and demand information, adjusting crude oil import tariffs and crude oil import license fees, and forcing enterprises to report changes in their reserve levels in a timely and truthful manner.

The American legal system related to oil reserves mainly in 1975 as the core, the energy policy and reserve act includes the energy policy and conservation act, the U.S. policy response to the oil supply disruption, the journal of the American countries about strategic petroleum reserve policy statement, such as the energy policy act of 75 bill about 200 functional departments and research institutes and put forward the concrete measures of advice. From the establishment of the petroleum reserve system to the process design, there are laws and rules to follow from the strategic decision to the concrete implementation.

Under the federal energy act and the organization of the department of energy act, the energy information administration, a statistical and policy-making subsidiary of the doe, compulsively collects, statistics, releases, analyzes and forecasts all types of national oil reserve data. The agency is also responsible for providing the U.S. congress with data analysis and assessments of the U.S. government's energy policies.

The United States plans to expand its national strategic reserves by 193 million barrels. Among them, Bayou Choctaw oil reserve base will be expanded by 33 million barrels per day, after which its daily supply will reach 1 million barrels per day. A new national strategic reserve will be built in richton, Mississippi, with a planned 160m barrels a day of supply.

In recent years, the United States no longer takes unilateral measures when using its national strategic reserves, but ACTS in coordination and unity with other members of the international energy agency. For example, in 2011, the United States used 60 million barrels of its national strategic reserves in close coordination with other western countries to deal with the fluctuation of oil supply caused by regime change in Libya.

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