2017-01-10 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Paper范文
This essay looks into the importance of training to innovation of an organization. The author believes training professionals have a leading role in innovation and change. firstly, the author have a review of literature on how the role of training professionals is identified in today’s businesses, to deliver innovation; secondly, the author discuss how training professionals approach the design and delivery of training and development programs with the theory of The Training Cycle; last but not least, the author selects two Australian organizations: ANZ bank and Westpac to discuss, compare and contrast their training mechanism for innovation.
2. The role of training professionals
In an organization, training professionals refers to those whose jobs were related to training such as trainers, training specialists, training administrators, training supervisors, training managers, training directors, and training consultants etc. the role of training professionals, as stated by Martyn Sloman (1999) is acting as a strategic facilitator and as a deliverer. He identified the role of the training professionals as developing and articulating the training strategy and plans and promoting the training culture as well as a supplier of training and manager of training activities. Through the writing of training strategies and policies, design and production, delivery, and evaluation of learning programs, Wilson, J.P. (1999) believes, the role of training professionals is not only to communicate and impact knowledge; but by using appropriate training methods, they can motivate, help people to learn, spark innovation and creativity and promote a hunger to learn. Nilson, C.D. (2003) hold the view that training professionals, especially the training manager needs to take on the task of facilitating employees’ ability to be creative and to help them learn to innovate as flexibility, learning and innovation are key ingredients of remaining employable in today’s corporate atmosphere of challenge and change. Other studies also provide strong evidence that training professionals can facilitate innovation in the organization by providing trainings. Turcotte (2002) found that innovation in products, services and processes, and implementation of new technologies or new software are positively associated with support of training provided by training professionals. Based on a review of a series of Canadian studies, Baldwin (1999) found out a positive linkage between innovation and training. He also emphasized that there are close relationship between innovation, skills and training, and the success of start-up firms. (Baldwin, 2000)
3. Training design and deliveryNo matter a training is taught by internal trainers of the organization or outside venders, it is certain that the program is designed by following a special process, which is also known as the Training Cycle as indicated in Fig. 1. In fact, training design and delivery is only two stages of it. The training cycle starts long before the training program begins and continues after the program is completed. (Biech, 2005)How training professionals approach the design and delivery of training and development programs is based on the first 4 stages.
Fig.1 the Training Cycle
Stage 1: Analyse NeedsBefore designing and delivering a training program, it is of great importance to analyze and understand the specific needs and intended outcomes of the training. Training needs analysis is to review the learning and development demand of staffs, with consideration on skills, knowledge and behaviors needed by employees and how to develop them effectively. There are different approaches for training needs analyzing, for example, structured interviews or focus groups, questionnaires and so on. It is deepened on organizational factors such as size and structure. A correct and reliable training needs analysis is of great importance for it is the basis of the whole training program. (Biech, 2005)
Stage 2: Develop ObjectivesThe development of training objectives is based on the organizational need which discovered in above stage. It focuses on the intended outcome of the training. A good training objective should state clearly the performance (knowledge or skill) that is desired and hope to accomplish after the completion of the training. A clear objective setting can improve motivation; hence it is useful to make all trainees understand it clearly before training starts. (Biech, 2005)
Stage 3: Devise ProgramOnce the objective is determined, training professionals starts to design the program. They decide how they are going to accomplish the objectives and meet the needs developed in the previous stages. There are many things need to consider in this stage, such as: whether to design it or purchase from outside vender; who is the audience and what is the best techniques to train them; how to add innovation and creativity to the program; how to ensure all the objectives are accomplished etc. (Biech, 2005) Stage 4: Implementing Training This is a stage where training professionals conduct the training program. With lot of preparation in initial stages, there is no guarantee that the program will a completely success. (Biech, 2005) Therefore, some trainers will pilot a program with a group to collect feedbacks before the real training. A trainer is both a presenter and facilitators, which require both presentation and facilitation skills. (Nilson, 2003)ANZ Banks Founded in 1835, headquartered in Melbourne, Anz Banks is the fifth largest commercial bank in Australia and the largest bank in New Zealand. The total Asset of ANZ Banks reaches 335 billion AUD. It has 781 branches in Australia and 1265 offices all around the world. ANZ Banks pay a lot of attention on the training of employees and spark innovation during the trainings. It has invested a great deal of money to set up an on-line learning center to encourage all staffs to learn. Every employees of the company can use this on-line learning center to learn. This is a large investment program. In 2006, 50 million AUD has been invested in the on-line courses. There are rich and diversified courses in the online learning center, which includes both business courses e.g. retailing banking, financial services and life courses such as fishing, housekeeping and so on. There are optional courses and compulsory courses. Optional courses are those employees choose according to their interests and hobbies; compulsory courses are determined according to the position of employees and employees have to pass specific exams after the training. In 2006, there are 90000 optional courses and 30000 compulsory courses. (ANZ, 2011)Westpac Banking Corp.
Westpac Banking Corp. is with the longest history in Australia. it is established in 1817, and changes its name to Westpac Banking Corp in 1982. Westpac Banking Corp provides banking services for Australia, New Zealand and south Pacific regions and is the forth largest banking group in Australia. Its total asset exceeds 200 billion AUD. The company provides services for over 7.5 million clients its branches al over pacific region and major financial center in the world. Westpac Banking Corp. is dedicated to establish a learning organization. Its training focus on five aspects: a. systematic thinking capacity; b. imagination and proactivity; c. thinking model; d. ability to grasp reality; d. team learning capacity. The Corp. emphasizes on the corporate culture building and spares no effort to cultivate their core vale “integrity, cooperation and efficiency. (Westpac, 2011)
Comparison and contrast
As discussed above, both ANZ and Westpac has valued employee innovation and take a series of measures to training for innovation. There is one difference in their technique: ANZ tries to spark innovation by introducing new training techniques – the on-line learning center. With the support of high-technology, employees are able to get training any time and any where. There is no evidence that Westpac is adopting new technique in employee training. Westpac approaches to training innovation with emphasis on the software. The trainings are tailored to help employee grasp innovative and creative thinking and improve their innovation capacity. Its training are divided into five aspects, which are all oriented in activate innovative and creative thinking of the employees.
There is similarity for both approaches. That is though training; both organizations are aimed to create a learning organization atmosphere and environment that encourages innovation, for example, ANZ’s high investment in employee training and learning; Westpac’s efforts to create a learning organization.
Due to the dynamic changes in business employment, employee workforce and organization structure, innovation and change is vital factor for organizations to survive and develop in the sever competition. This essay looks into the issue that how training and training professionals play their role in innovation with cases study of two Australian banks’ training mechanism: ANZ Banks and Westpac Banking Corp. based on the above discussion, the author believes training professional is not only a training delivery but also a facilitator. It is have a leading role in innovation and changes.