Research on Autism Spectrum Disorder--多伦多Report代写作业
2016-10-13 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Report范文
多伦多Report代写作业:“Research on Autism Spectrum Disorder”，这篇论文主要描述的是早在1943年前的美国，一位精神病研究专家就用自闭症谱系来形容孩子自闭症的行为，他认为自闭症儿童的自闭是一种幼稚的行为，将自己封闭在了自我的世界当中，对自身的发育形成了巨大的阻碍，这将严重的影响到这些自闭症儿童的语言及非语言形式的交流和沟通，也影响着这些儿童智力的发育。
In 1943, Leo Kanner, an American psychiatrist initially described the phenomenon of Autism according to the behaviors of 13 children. In 1944, Kanner defined the children with Autism Spectrum Disorder as infantile autisms, which indicates the children sealing themselves in their own world (Kanner, 1943). Officially, in 1991, the United States Department of Education defined the Autism Spectrum Disorder as a developmental disability, which generates a significant impact on verbal and non-verbal communication. Usually, the symptom of Autism Spectrum Disorder would appear before the age of three. What’s more, the Autism Spectrum Disorder also generally influences educational performances.
The defect of social skills and verbal communication capability and repetitive stereotyped behaviors are the major characteristics of autism. Since the cause of Autism disorder is not clear. According to Kanner’s definition, Autism is divided into low-functioning, mid-functioning and high-functioning autism (Bauminger, 2002). However, the symptoms of high-functioning autism and Asperger’s syndrome, Autism Spectrum Disorder cover both of these disorders. Although the standard of diagnosis has experienced a great progress, there are still various problems and challenges in the research of Autism Spectrum Disorder. Some new discoveries in cognitive neuroscience are required to be integrated in order to establish a advanced diagnostic system.
Impact on an individual’s development
In 1943, the American psychiatrist Leo Kanner first proposed the diagnose report of “Childhood autism”, which included 11 cases. Kanner found there were some common characteristics: 1) these children could not able to establish emotional connection with people around; 2) extremely isolated; 3) language retardation, the possessed language could not make practical difference to communication; 4) they often engage in simple games; 5) some children have mental retardation; 6) they have smart performance.Asperger Syndrome is another major category in Autism Spectrum Disorder. Different from childhood autism, the children with Asperger Syndrome do not have language retardation and cognition retardation. In addition, usually, the average intelligence level of these children is normal. The feature of Asperger Syndrome manifests as abnormal social interactions, accompanying with repetitive and clumsy actions. In social activities, it is hard for those children with Asperger Syndrome to establish a nice relationship with their peers. More than this, children with Asperger Syndrome could hardly generate interests and hobbies.
In the past decades, one of significant development of Autism diagnosis was a new standard. The US diagnosis system (DSM-IV) and international disease criteria (ICD-10) proposed two independent Autism diagnosis standards.
Stereotyped behavior is the major object for interventions. According to the functioning behavior assessment theory, the generation and maintenance causes of the behavioral problems in children could be divided into antecedent events, consequence event, and individual characteristics. Thus, the relevant interventions are divided in three parts: antecedent control strategy, positive interventions in problem occurrence, and consequences strategy (McClannahan & Krantz, 1993).
Antecedent control strategy indicates the control interventional before problem behavior. There are several intervention methods in antecedent control strategy, including stimuli control, non contingent reinforcement, and providing alternative stimuli.
Stimuli control method presents two different signals to the children with Autism. Some behaviors are allowed by one signal, while some behaviors are prohibited by another signal. The purpose of stimuli control method is to limit the frequency of behavior problems. With Haley’s research (2008), several children with Autism received the treatment. After the stimuli control method, the frequency of stereotyped behavior. While the red card with the word “keep quiet” was presented, the incidence of stereotyped behaviors declined from 48% to 17%. On the other hand, when the blue card with the work “talk” was presented, the incidence of stereotyped behaviors increased rapidly. Besides, the observers also found that the interventions could impact other forms of stereotyped behaviors, including non-academic situations. Additionally, the stimuli control method would not obstruct language skills, which promotes the social validity. The non contingent reinforcement demonstrates a treatment which provides various stimuli without considering their behaviors. In the intervention process, the observers utilized non contingent reinforcement against stereotyped behaviors. With the promotion of reinforcer could improve the stimulation effects and expand the intervention effects. Moreover, providing alternative stimuli is based on the theory that the major function of continuous stereotyped behavior is gaining sensory stimulation. For instance, continuous, repetitive and meaningless vocal behaviors generate auditory stimulations. Thus, the frequency of stereotyped behaviors might decline while the children could get sensory stimulation from certain matched actions. According to the research from Lanovaz(2011), the effect of providing alternative stimuli was proved with small sample.
The positive intervention in problem occurrence indicates the treatment taken before stereotyped behavior. One of major treatments is response interruption and redirection. With the response interruption and redirection, the stereotyped behaviors would be interrupted immediately and redirected into appropriate behavior by generating incompatible stimulation (Lanovaz, Sladeczek & Rapp, 2011). For instance, when the speech stereotyped behavior happens, the interveners would immediately call the child’s name. Meanwhile, the child is required to make certain movement. The primary target of the response interruption and redirection is to correct vocal stereotyped behaviors.
Consequence control strategy, including differential reinforcement and response cost, indicates the treatment taken after stereotyped behaviors. Both of these methods achieve great effects. The differential reinforcement applies reinforcement and degradation principle to increase the occurrence rate of good behaviors. With the differential reinforcement, the average duration of stereotyped behaviors are significantly declined. What’s more, the researchers demonstrate the progressive time intervals will ensure the effect of differential reinforcement. The response cost is another intervention method in consequence control strategy. After the stereotyped behaviors occur, a certain amount of reinforcer would be deprived from the child in order to reduce the frequency in the future. In Falcomata’s research, some toys were provided firstly. Once the stereotyped behaviors occur, the toys would be taken away immediately. As a result, the occurrence rate of stereotyped behaviors was limited remarkably (Falcomata, Roane, & Pabico, 2007).
Additionally, the training of relevant skills also helps the children to reduce their stereotyped behaviors. Through training the testees to command the skill of self-management, stereotyped behavior is expected to be limited proactively (Falcomata, Roane, & Pabico, 2007). Furthermore, learning self-management skill will help to save human resources. Particularly, this method is better suited for the children with less serious autism disorders.
Currently, the intervention of stereotyped behavior made various progresses.
Early intervention is drawing more and more attention. Viewed from the age, over half of the testees pre-school children from 3 to 6 years old, followed by school-age children. Besides, these early intervention also achieve great effects. With Boyd’ research (2002), the average age of testees is 4. The observer found that the stereotyped behavior has various performances in early ages. After the cointervention from parents and researchers, the frequency of all stereotyped behaviors is significantly reduced. Meanwhile, the linguistic was improved. In addition, the teachers pay more attention to child behavioral problems since researchers could make abundant intervention methods. Particularly, early interventions enable the pre-school children to control their linguistic stereotyped behaviors proactively. However, interventions aiming at adults still lack successful samples. Researchers believe that the stereotyped behaviors have already been shaped in adult stage, which brings more difficulties to external interventions (Dawson & Osterling, 1997).
Additionally, stereotyped linguistic behavior has become a main focus for intervention. As one of major target behavior, stereotyped linguistic behavior is easily to attract attention. Thus, the negative effects might be more obvious than other stereotyped behavior, such as body rocking and hand flapping. On the other hand, stereotyped linguistic behavior blocks the effective communication between individual and the outside society. Hence, the stereotyped linguistic behaviors could be considered as a defect for the children with autism. On the contrary, other seemingly obvious behaviors are not the major object of intervention because they would not cause serious damage or disturbance to individual and outside.
Thirdly, the intervention aiming at stereotyped object operation behavior and bite behavior start to draw attention from researchers. Intervention into stereotyped object operation behavior could help the children to contact more fresh stimulations and promote the development of relevant skills. Simultaneously, the stereotyped bite behavior has high potential risk for the children. Thus, researchers have paid more attention on the intervention into these two kinds of stereotyped behaviors.
As mentioned above, the Autism Spectrum Disorders cover a wide range. How to identify the disorder of children or adults in the category of Autism Spectrum Disorders but not in common autism has become one of major challenges in the research. In fact, there is no a clear boundary between Asperger and autism or pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) and autism. Some researchers attempt to utilize standardized test and assessment tools to establish various diagnostic criteria for spectrum disorders and other communication defects. Unfortunately, the effects are not ideal. Meanwhile, other clustering methods have been attempted without success. Generally, while making distinction between autism and other PDD syndromes, the differences are mainly linguistic skills and other severity. Those children might not perform other forms of stereotyped behavior variance (Dingfelder & Mandell, 2011).
Simultaneously, the diagnostic level also arouses various controversies. Current diagnostic standard gives special value to behaviors and development status of the children before 3 years old. The purpose of evocation age (before 3 years old) in the major diagnostic standard is to distinguish common autism from non-spectrum disorders instead of other spectrum disorders. However, the concentration on evocation age highlights the artificiality while distinguishing Autism Spectrum Disorders. For instance, the diagnosis of autism is prior to Asperge or PDD. Autism diagnosis might be excluded for an individual because of no obvious abnormalities before 3 years old. And thus confirm this child could have other disorder, such as PDD; on the contrary, a three-year-old child with language delay or other linguistic stereotyped behaviors would not be diagnosed as Asperger since the disorder began before three. Even in 5 years old, this delay might not be measured.
Children or adults with autism might perform some similar defect models. However, these similar defect models could vary from different individuals and development time. As a result, the development and variation brings a serious challenge to consistency of the diagnosis. Since there is no clear biological label to identify autism, measuring and considering individual differences and developments become more and more important. Besides, diagnostic framework is facing new challenges. It is difficult to reorganize some new discoveries from research of reorganization development mode. For example, some researchers found that a lot of autistic children seemingly perform various specific cognitive function defects.
Autism Spectrum Disorder is a general developmental defect with neural basis. The major clinical features of Autism Spectrum Disorder are social dysfunction, verbal and non-verbal defects, narrow interests, frequent stereotyped behaviors and so on. Since the syndromes of Autism Spectrum Disorder are wide, some clinical syndromes do not appear steadily before 3 years old. Various intervention methods are utilized to correct the stereotyped behaviors, including stimuli control, redirection methods, relevant skills trainings, and so on. Besides, the intervention strategy also experienced a large progress. Currently, the researchers are paying more and more attention to the early intervention, aiming at linguistic and social defects.In conclusion, the diagnosis standard of Autism Spectrum Disorder has experienced a great progress in recent years. However, there are still various problems expected to be solved. For instance, subjects such as how to distribute weight in autism spectrum disorders; how to identify boundaries among various disorders arouse general attention for the researchers. Besides, some new discoveries in cognitive neurological development have yet to integrate. Within the Autism Spectrum Disorders, the research of how to utilize disorder criteria in clinical and educational situation is also ongoing.
It is encouraging that the answers for those problems are becoming clear. With providing more appropriate ways, the researchers are expecting to find key information from vertical track and neurobiology in order to re-conceptualize the diagnosis standard of Autism Spectrum Disorder.