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Superstitious people think that the illusion of control--多伦多大学Report代写范文

2016-10-12 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Report范文

多伦多大学Report代写范文:“Superstitious people think that the illusion of control”,这篇论文主要描述的是通过研究表明人或者是动物都会带有迷信感觉认为他们已经能够控制一些根本就无法控制的事,这种也属于超自然幻想的一种,迷信的人越多,人们对于这种控制的错觉也就越大,并且举例了美国心理学家著名的动物实验作为理论的依据。

 report代写,psychology report,留学生作业代写,superstition,论文代写

People are surrounded by numerous uncontrollable outcomes in daily life. Also, people tend to perceive they exert control on these random and uncontrollable events while they actually not. Langer (1975) referred to "illusion of control" phenomenon as an inappropriately and hardly possible higher expectancy of success probability than the possible objective success probability. The following article is going to test whether superstitious people perceive more illusion of control or not with an well-designed experiment.

1.1 Superstitious People Perceive More Illusion of Control

Large numbers of studies have shown that both animals and people are superstitious to perceive they have control on these uncontrollable outcomes by doing superstitious behaviors (e.g., Skinner, 1948; Ono, 1987; Rudski, Lischner, & Albert, 2012). Rudski (2004) also claimed that the illusion of control was positively related to paranormal ideas, which result from superstition. The more superstitious people are, the higher their level of illusion of control demonstrated.

1.2 Superstitious behaviors

One of the most famous experiment on the superstitious behaviors of animals was done by Skinner, an American psychologist and behaviorist. Skinner (1948) asked the dispenser to provide pigeons with food in a Skinner's box at fixed time intervals such as every 15 minutes. The result showed that the pigeons would associate whatever behavior they were engaging in at the time of the food being dispensed with the delivery of the food. In this way, Skinner conditioned pigeons to nod their heads, spin around in circles, or to be engaged in swaying motions.

People may laugh at the superstitious pigeons in Skinner's experiment. However, it is quite normal for people themselves to behave superstitiously especially in competitive games (Rudski, 2001; Neil, 1982). For instance, since the moment the game started, some superstitious cricket fans tend not to leave their seats because they believe and fear that leaving the seats would bring ‘bad luck’ to their favorite team. In fact, superstitious behaviors are much more common and frequent in athletes themselves than their fans. Superstition and ritual is widespread in competitive sports, and even considered normal. Many athletes who subscribe to superstitious rituals believe them to be effective for performance (Lobmeyer & Wasserman, 1986). For example, Hall of Fame third baseman Wade Boggs enjoyed an incredibly successful 18-year career, appearing in 12 All-Star Games and winning the 1996 World Series with the Yankees before calling it quits. Boggs had an insanely regimented pre-game routine – reportedly, he would field exactly 150 ground balls in the infield, start his batting practice at exactly 5:17 PM (during night games), and run wind sprints at exactly 7:17 PM. Then, of course, there was the chicken he would eat before every game, earning him the nickname, “Chicken Man.” He embraced the public’s interest in his chicken obsession by putting out a book featuring his favorite fowl recipes in 1984.

1.3 Aim

The present study targets at testing whether highly superstitious people perceive more illusion of control over a partially uncontrollable outcome compared to less superstitious people as shown in previous papers? The present study also focuses on investigating whether following judgment has an impact on this effect (high superstition is related to more perceived control) or not? It is hypothesized that people  demonstrate a much more pronounced illusion of control when they are set to make judgments about the influence their behaviors have on a random and uncontrollable outcome than when they are set to make judgments about the influence of another person’s behaviors on the same random and uncontrollable outcome?

The participants were instructed to be engaged in ‘active’ condition (participants were asked to press the button themselves and rate the amount of control participants had over the light), and ‘passive’ condition (participants did not press the button themselves but were instead asked to rate the amount of control that Bob’s actions had on whether or not the light turned on). Then, they need to complete a series of questionnaires including the Superstitious Beliefs Questionnaire (SBQ) and a number of demographic questions. ‘High superstition’ individuals were distinguished from ‘low superstition’ individuals on the basis of a median split of the SBQ scores.

1.4 Hypothesis

This study had two specific predictions. The first prediction was that ‘high-superstition’ individuals would report having more control over the light in the ‘active’ condition, compared to ‘low-superstition’ individuals. The second prediction was that this effect (i.e., ‘high-superstition’ individuals reporting more control than ‘low-superstition’ individuals) would be more pronounced in the ‘active’ condition compared to the ‘passive’ condition.

2. Method

2.1 Participants

There were 996 participants coming from the University of New South Wales who were first year psychology students (M = 19.8 years, 644 female, 352 male). They participated in the class experiment to meet the need of curriculum.

2.2 Design

This study involved two conditions: ‘active’ condition (participants were asked to press the button themselves and rate the amount of control participants had over the light), and ‘passive’ condition (participants did not press the button themselves but were instead asked to rate the amount of control that Bob’s actions had on whether or not the light turned on). Then, participants needed to complete a series of questionnaires. One of these questionnaires was the Superstitious Beliefs Questionnaire (SBQ). Participants were also asked to complete a number of demographic questions, including questions relating to your age and gender, and were also asked to report whether participants were naive to the design of the experiment.

2.3 Materials

The participants were asked to perform a contingency judgment task on a standard computer terminal (HP desktop computer, Dell U2311H 60Hz LCD monitor). The “Inquisit” software package (Millisecond Software, Seattle) was used for stimulus presentation.

One of the questionnaires participants were asked to complete was the Superstitious Beliefs Questionnaire (SBQ). The SBQ is a 26-item scale (with each item scored between 0 and 4) which aims to assess level of superstition in psychologically healthy individuals. The maximum possible score on the SBQ is 104, and higher scores indicate higher levels of superstitious beliefs. Participants were also asked to complete a number of demographic questions, including questions relating to your age and gender, and were also asked to report whether participants were naive to the design of the experiment.

2.4 Procedure

In the first condition of this experiment, participants had to choose whether or not to press a button on the screen. This action (i.e., either pressing or not pressing the button) resulted in the light-bulb on the screen being illuminated, or not. Thus there were 4 different categories of trial: press for light, press for no-light, no-press for light, no-press for no-light. After every 10 trials participants were asked to rate (by moving a slider displayed on the screen) how much control participants felt that participants had over whether the light-bulb turned on. This condition was dubbed the ‘active’ condition, as participants were asked to press the button themselves and rate the amount of control participants had over the light. In total, there were 40 experimental trials in the ‘active’ condition. There was also a second condition in which participants were informed about the results of an imaginary friend (Bob) performing the task, and participants were asked to rate the amount of control that Bob had over the light. This was dubbed the ‘passive’ condition, as participants did not press the button themselves but were instead asked to rate the amount of control that Bob’s actions had on whether or not the light turned on. There were 40 experimental trials in the ‘passive’ condition. As per the ‘active’ condition, after every 10 trials participants were asked to rate how much control participants felt that Bob had over whether or not the light turned on. The actual amount of control that the button-press had over the light varied over the course of the experimental session. However, on average, pressing the button approximately doubled the probability that the light would turn on, in both the ‘active’ and ‘passive’ conditions.

Finally, participants were asked to complete a series of questionnaires. One of these questionnaires was the Superstitious Beliefs Questionnaire (SBQ). The SBQ is a 26-item scale (with each item scored between 0 and 4) which aims to assess level of superstition in psychologically healthy individuals. The maximum possible score on the SBQ is 104, and higher scores indicate higher levels of superstitious beliefs. Participants were also asked to complete a number of demographic questions, including questions relating to your age and gender, and were also asked to report whether participants were naive to the design of the experiment.

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