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The Psychological Mechanism in Film Cognition--Report代写范文

2016-10-09 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Report范文

Report代写范文:“The Psychological Mechanism in Film Cognition”,这篇论文主要描述的是在电影中加入心理认知的元素这种理论起源于20世纪80年代,在当时对电影行业的发展产生了较大的影响,这种理论并不强调需要在电影中加入多少的美学元素,主张以科学理性的角度,用现代科学作为认知的角度,来理解和学习电影所表达的内涵,这也是人们所认知的传统电影理论。

report代写,Film theory,留学生作业代写,Industry Culture,论文代写

Since 1980s, the cogitivst theory aroused, which has generated a significant impact on the film industry. Distinguished from other traditional theories, cogitivist theory does not emphasis aesthetics factors, insist certain perspective. The Cogitivist School has a larger ambition. They are expected to reform the traditional film theories under the background of science. Scientism and rationalism are the basic attitudes for the Cogitivist School, although these attitudes have become the target for the humanism. However, there was a question that whether the contemporary science could provide a new start for understanding films and studying films. As an attempt, the cognitive perspective solved this problem in the affirmative. The basic starting point for the cognitists is the visual staying theory, which was rejected by traditional film theories.

Borwell introduces the definition of cognitivism into his theory. Cognitivism indicates the process of seeking emotion, actions, and though upon mental reenactment. However, while applying the theory into real situations, Bordwell rarely mentions psychological process. Based on this point, Bordwell’s theory has developed an accurate aesthetic anatomy (Petric, 2001). Both Semiotics and Cognitivism?. Initially, the application of Bordwell’s cognitive theory would rely on an ideal spectator. The cognition would be integrated after the text narration. Then, the casual relationship, spatial relationship and time relationship would be analyzed from details. Aiming at the narration process, Bordwell’s theory divides its research target into fabula (story mode) and syuzhet (plot mode) Bordwell, 1989)..

In fact, the concept of visual staying is generally known and utilized in life. Visual staying theory indicates the phenomenon: since objects leave image on our retina; what’s more, this image will extend to 0.1 second on our retina after the objects were moved away. This concept plays a central role in movie technology and other art fields. As always, this concept is the reason that films could be considered as in motion. There is no doubt that the invention of film technology was guided by this principle. The evolution from still photography into active photography is the process of utilizing visual staying principle to generate movement between states. Consequently, this concept has rooted in generally Bordwell, 1989).

The film cogitivist theory built up a bridge between psychoanalysis and mainstream film studies. Cognitive theory is the study of how the spectators watch movies. Additionally, cognitivsts try to figure out the narrative mechanism and how to generate interests. Bordwell attempts to describe film narration through the perspective of psychoanalysis. This proposal indicates the existence of spectator’s participation. As a result, the spectators are an active part while constructing the story. In other words, the film narration does not suppress the spectator. On the contrary, a great narration mechanism could offer some positive thinking activities. Special narration context will communicate with the spectators in a specific way in order to generate certain special activity.

Usually, the narrative mechanism decides spectator’s reflections. The direct objects of narrative mechanism are eyes, ears and muscles, which could dominate the cognitive activities of spectators. Consequently, the cognitive theory and narrative mechanism could supplement each other.

Actually, the narrative situations involve with text anatomy. The description of narrative situation could be divided into three aspects: camera deign, camera frame, and the editing process. These levels work as an integration while generating and delivering various cognitive signals. The narrative context in a film represents the real text, which is the foundation of any images.     Thus, any narrative film would be presented through narrative context. With this premise, it could be assumed that any narrative film includes an underlying narrator Bordwell, 1989). What’s more, different context decides keynote and attitude of narrator. In this way, the narrator will be presented generally. Narrator would tell a story in certain narrative context while this narrative process involves with a interaction between narrator and narrative objects. From another point of view, narration is considered as an interaction mechanism, which urges the communicate relationship between narrator and spectator.

Narration occupies a large proportion in Bordwell’s theory. Generally, narration involves with narrator, narrativization and narration process. Different theorists have different perspectives on narration. For instance, Seymour Chatman’s narration concentrates on implied author, he pays much attention on the discussion among narrator, actual author, reader and implied author. Bordwell’s understanding about narration is based on Russian form, which includes fabula and syuzhet. It is generally known that Bordwell expects to break the restriction of literature and linguistics. However, his theory comes from literacy criticism to some extent. Under some circumstances, plots could either develop or limit the story, and vice versa. Furthermore, Bordwell hopes to prove film is a sort of independent form of art. Hence, films should not be cut into various symbols and codes (Petric, 2001). On the contrary, Bordwell follows the idea of perceptual knowledge and conceptual knowledge in order to interpret the difference between novel and film.

Bordwell’s theory emphasizes the significance of spectator’s cognitive activities in film narration. The film narration is considered as a process instead of simple statement. Bordwell believes the traditional narrative mechanism would lead a more complicated way to understand films. In fact, however, there is a lack of mapping between film and oral activities. Thus, the narrative theory turns to spectator orientation. The cogitivists believe the spectators would have cognitive activities to create stories according to the understanding rules. Hence, the film’s role is to prompt and guide through various models, which means the spectators are active during watching films. Therefore, two core parts comprise the film narrative system, including story construction from spectators’ cognition and cognition trigger from text mode (Plantinga, 2002).

On the aspect of spectators’ cognition and perception, Bordwell found a supports from Constructivist theory. Base on constructivist theory, there a tight connection between perception and cognition. Furthermore, in the process of film narration, the schemata lead the subject to make assumptions and make inferences. Hence, the schemata play a crucial role in understanding stories. Meanwhile, the Constructivist theory is considered as a dynamic psychological process when the spectators are watching film. This psychological process will control the perception capability, former experience and the film’s structure. From the view of perception capability, the visual system decides film’s hallucinative feature. For instance, while watching films, the visual system affects the perception. Additionally, the schemata come from our daily life and other art works when the film itself drives the spectators to construct the entire story and complete the narration. In general, Bordwell’s theory demonstrates spectators’ thinking is active. The spectators would attempt to look for meaning in the cognition process. In order to find the meanings, the spectator would be required to utilize the schemata and make inference (Bordwell, 1992).

More than this, Bordwell believes that the major target of memory narration is to create meaningful stories, especially for the spectators with Western culture. Besides, according to Bordwell’s theory, the narration is considered as a formal system. This system could both limit and encourage the spectators to construct the story. In this theory, the fabula indicates a series of sequent events, which are transferred from specific actions; the syuzhet (plot) is the actual presentation and arrangement. The style means a systematic application of film techniques, which represent the entire media factors. Through the partition of fabula and syuzhet, Borewell’s narration theory concentrates on spectator’s cognition, instead of narrators. Meanwhile, Borewell proposes that the connection of fabula and syuzhet is based on the principle of anarration logic, time and space.

Therefore, fabula (story) is individual surmise and inference, which means a logical cognition. Hence, the story mode never appears on the screen. The fact is that the spectators are guided to assume the truth. In general, the spectators would pick up some clues and organize interpretative frame. Then the spectators will test and regulate their assumptions (Bordwell, 2000).

Borwell’s narration theory looks at the plot arrangement and style design. He attempts to analyze how these two factors supplement or block each other. However, Borwell does not mention a lot about material management. In many cases, slight adjustment of material would impact the direction and focus of narration, and then influence spectators’ cognition. Consequently, the change of material is the key to the research of story mode and plot mode (Plantinga, 2002).

Bordwell’s cognitive theory could help to appreciate Hitchcock’s film Strangers on a Train. In this film, Hitchcock paves various clues in order to guide the spectators to form cognition.

In addition, the material management is another praiseworthy part in Strangers on a Train. Throughout the film, the contradictions and tensions between Bruno and Haines are handled perfectly. Although the suspense is not quite in-depth, the film still successfully externalizes psychological description. This arrangement improves the tense atmosphere. Rather than directly providing shocking moments, Hitchcock uses various side descriptions in order to help the spectators to form and mobilize their schemata (Bordwell, 1992).

Furthermore, the image treatment in Strangers on a Train also helps the spectator to collect and organize clues. For instance, the shot when Bruno Anthony murdered Miriam was lauded as a classic scene. At first, Bruno and Miriam were rowing upon a water channel. When they row across the cave, their shadows were reflected on the cave wall, which bespeaks a horrible event. After this shot, Bruno nips Miriam’s neck, and then Miriam’s glasses hit the ground. In the reflection of glasses, the murder scene was twisted ghastly. Besides, in the middle of this film, Bruno continued to ratchet up the pressure on Haines. One of the scenes concretes this psychological pressure for the spectators: while Bruno standing among several large white pillars with black suit, the camera angle is Haines in a car. The large white pillars are full of the image when Bruno is looking at Haines far away. Although the image of Bruno is seen as a little black spot, the spectator could still really fell the intangible fear and pressure.

Clues are another interesting factor in this film. Rather than making rash plots, Hitchcock utilize psychological principles to create nervous and anxious emotion. In Strangers on a Train, the lighter is the crucial object to fully mobilize the emotion and develop the story. Initially, the lighter was found at the scene of the crime. Additionally, the feature on the lighter attracts spectators’ attention. If Bruno did not find this lighter, the plot might be changed since the lighter will become Guy’s crime evidence. Secondly, the lighter drops into the ditch, which is echoed by the tennis game. Then Bruno started looking for the lighter with anxiety. At the end of the film, Bruno and Haines snatch the lighter on merry-go-round. Then, according to Bruno’s last word, Guy would be charged if he could not find the lighter. At this point, spectators’ anxious emotion comes to a peak. Eventually, the lighter drops from the Stranger, the suspense is opened. Hitchcock sets up four long shots to provoke spectators’ assumptions. Any story variations among these four scenes will lead to different results.

With the development of plot, the spectators are always in anxious atmosphere, they would keep making inferences according to the clues. Although the murderer was revealed early in the film, strong suspenseful atmosphere still lead spectators’ activity.

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