代写范文

留学资讯

写作技巧

论文代写专题

服务承诺

资金托管
原创保证
实力保障
24小时客服
使命必达

51Due提供Essay,Paper,Report,Assignment等学科作业的代写与辅导,同时涵盖Personal Statement,转学申请等留学文书代写。

51Due将让你达成学业目标
51Due将让你达成学业目标
51Due将让你达成学业目标
51Due将让你达成学业目标

私人订制你的未来职场 世界名企,高端行业岗位等 在新的起点上实现更高水平的发展

积累工作经验
多元化文化交流
专业实操技能
建立人际资源圈

Rural poverty in medieval England

2019-01-23 来源: 51due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- Rural poverty in medieval England,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了中世纪英国乡村的贫困。中世纪的时候,英国乡村社会底层民众普遍经历了物质生活贫困。由于独特的经济、社会和宗教环境,英国乡村家庭内部救济、庄园共同体济助和基督教慈善救助等诸多济助因素,共同构建起多元化救助体系。其根植于传统社会的救助网络,保证了乡村贫困人口在物质资源匮乏的条件下能够生存下来,缓解了社会贫困压力,避免了社会动荡,为乡村经济社会的稳定发展创造了条件。

Rural poverty,中世纪英国乡村的贫困,assignment代写,paper代写,北美作业代写

In the middle ages, people at the bottom of rural society in Britain generally experienced material poverty. Due to the unique economic, social and religious environment, the British rural family internal relief, manor community relief and Christian charity relief and many other relief factors, jointly build a diversified relief system. Rooted in the traditional social relief network, it ensures the rural poor people can survive in the condition of lack of material resources, alleviates the pressure of social poverty, avoids social unrest, and creates conditions for the stable development of rural economy and society. In the late middle ages, the British rural relief system changed from religious charity to secular relief, from temporary relief to long-term relief, and from voluntary relief to law-based public relief in modern government, which started the modernization process of social security in Britain.

Poverty is an important phenomenon in human society. In the medieval society with underdeveloped productivity, poverty was always accompanied by ordinary people due to various factors. It not only affected the lives of many people, but also tested the social values and moral qualities of people. Medieval British society was a rural world, "the life of the common people is almost entirely rural agricultural life", until the 16th century, every 10 British people live in rural areas. Historical studies show that poverty was a condition of life for most of the lower classes in the middle ages. The laborers who make their living with their hands, such as the thatchers and the pitchers, are called the "people under man". They hold so little land that even intensive farming can hardly make a living. Their history is difficult to understand, but it is very important. Study medieval countryside poverty and help the problem, focus on the poor long hours of daily life, will not only help from a new Angle of view reveals the average state of daily life and way of life, to study the changes of social structure and trend, but also help rich people understanding of the history of the different classes, to form a more scientific "history" of the whole. Chinese and foreign scholars have studied this issue from different perspectives, but only in a certain field, which is not systematic and comprehensive. On the basis of inheriting the previous research results, this paper intends to make a more comprehensive and systematic discussion on the rural poverty and relief in medieval England, hoping to form a relatively complete understanding.

In the middle ages, this phenomenon was not noticed because poverty was common in early societies. At that time, land was the most basic subsistence for people. The status of land possession has become an important indicator to measure the poverty of rural residents. For insecure sharecroppers, even a small plot of land can keep them from falling into poverty, because the land can be sold or used for loans, and there is some income from subletting. Some scholars have examined the extent of poverty in society by assessing land holdings in the middle ages. Bennett, a British historian, believed that if 36 to 40 bushels of grain were to be the bottom line for an average family to produce that much food, it would take nearly 10 acres of land. Based on Bennett's estimate, Tito further studied the average household size of 4.5 people and concluded that under the two-field system each household would need at least 13.5 acres and under the three-field system each household would need at least 10 acres to survive. After analyzing the holding status of 13,500 plots of land in 7 counties of midland in 1279, cosmisky believed that 46% were under 10 acres. Considering the heavy feudal burden of serfs, it might be close to the limit of subsistence, and taking 10 acres as the minimum amount of land for farmers' families to survive might not be enough. Francis ? and Joseph ? gith according to the state of the economy will farmers can be broadly divided into three levels, holds the most land is one of the few with 40 to 100 acres of land rich home, times of 12 to 16 acres and a half, geithner farmers, in abundance times can feed their families, the bottom is no land, or land below 12 acres, is not enough to support his family. Hilton believes that villan, who owns 15 acres of land, is still struggling to make ends meet. So 15 acres is just about the minimum amount of land that a farmer's family needs to survive.

By the standards of 15 acres, a significant proportion of the British population was poor during the middle ages. In the 11th century marginal or thatched farmers made up 32% of the population and owned only 5% of the land. Before 1300, small landholders dominated the land and social structure of England, especially in the south and east. In shropham, Norfolk, for example, 74% of sharecroppers owned less than five acres in 1298; In 1285, the tenants of the archbishop of Canterbury in Sussex held 54% of their land under five acres. According to the British economic historian David postan, "on the whole, in the thirteenth century, the small peasant population was large, often larger than that of the middle class, and even larger than that of all other classes combined. A random sample of 104 estates showed that tenant farmers who owned 10 acres and less than 10 acres and more than half of the population were on all estates... This means that about half of the agricultural population does not have enough land to keep the family on a subsistence level. According to historians, poverty peaked between 1290 and 1330 and then declined. In the late middle ages, with the exception of the eastern villages from Kent to lincolnshire, most of the registered rural population in England owned between five and thirty acres of land, and it is certain that in many of these villages most people owned five acres or less. They and their families and dependents make up the vast majority of the British population, more than 80 percent, and their total family size is around one million.

The lack of accurate data makes it difficult to quantify poverty as a state of life that historians can observe. Many documents document the conditions of the poor in the middle ages. The material life of the peasant, as chippera points out, was so uncertain and often pitiful before the 12th century. The lodgings are a cottage, the roof of an air-fern, and the earthy ground a great deal of humble equipment. It has remained so for centuries. They wore coarse clothes made of wool or linen, and their food was very simple. A moralist in the early 12th century said that the husbandman had never drunk the wine from his own grapes or tasted a good piece of food; He would have loved to have kept his brown bread and some of his butter and cheese. In the 14th century, Chaucer described the condition of the poor widow in the story of the priestess neale, who lived in two cabins and ate "meals without chutney, and never had enough to eat, and often fell ill as a result. Daily food includes milk, coarse brown bread and sometimes an egg or two. "The poorest peasants are often landless vagrants, whose huts are built in the wilderness or the jungle. ...... The structure of such huts is so simple that they can often be built overnight. ...... In 1602 a writer wrote of a Cornish cottage: 'mud walls and low woolly roofs, hardly any partitions, no floors, no glass Windows, no chimneys, and the smoke extraction equipment is nothing more than a hole in the wall... A survey of the poor, if food scarcity is taken as the criterion, reveals that, for many years in the early fourteenth century, more than one million people out of a total population of five to six million were poor. Around 1500, out of a population of 2.3 million, it would be almost impossible to estimate poverty below 120,000. There were many reasons why people fell into poverty in the middle ages. The above serious imbalance in the possession of land resources caused by the private ownership of means of production is only a basic reason. In fact, before 1350, there were a large number of incapacitated elderly and children, sick and disabled, and families whose spouses or parents were incapacitated. The poverty these people fall into is passed down between generations. Children of the poor have no ability to acquire the skills to make a living, no inheritance to inherit, no dowry for daughters whose parents are dead, and no way to start a family. After 1350, although there was more land available and more employable opportunities, poverty did not break down between generations and sometimes became worse, such as the plague that caused a large number of orphans and single parents. In addition, due to the shortage of labor force, the wages of employees have been raised and they can be well paid to go out for employment, which encourages the young people to migrate and leave the old without support. Frequent natural disasters, wars, pestilence, and fluctuating economic conditions are all important factors contributing to poverty. According to the statistics of bath, from 1000 to 1450, there were 240 times of severe winter, heavy snow, flood, rainy, drought, hot summer and other natural disasters in Britain, less than once every two years on average. In such a special period, the life of farmers must be worse than the normal years, and even each famine will result in the death of a large number of people to varying degrees. The major wars included the hundred years' war between England and France in 1337-1453 and the wars of the roses in 1455-1485. War brings destruction and plunder, resulting in abandoned villages, barren fields and displaced farmers. The black death in the mid-14th century was just one of many epidemics that killed many adults and impoverished many families. The elderly, orphans, widows, the disabled, the sick, the dispossessed, low-wage workers and the unemployed are the most vulnerable to poverty.

People in the middle ages were sympathetic and friendly to the poor. At the time, people believed that the rich could transform into the poor because of natural disasters, famines, pestilences, wars and unstable personal conditions. A man who is rich today may be poor tomorrow. So, by being kind to today's poor, the relatively wealthy create opportunities for future help if they fall into poverty. In the uncertain world of the middle ages, the objects of poverty were also likely to be the families and neighbours of the rich, so that they could feel deep sympathy. "It is our neighbors who live the hardest," William langland said, and many expressed the same sentiment in their wills. In 1516, a will in buckinghamshire promised to provide the poor with new baked wastel and cocke, white bread, at city parties. In northamptonshire, a similar will promises supplies. In addition, the middle ages British rural collective farming is a common system, many farm work is done by collaboration between farmers, for the lords of the hard labor, also as a collective responsibility for them, if there are neighbors because of poverty, will directly affect the fields, not hard to finish on time, this also prompted the neighbors help care about each other.

The prevailing Christian doctrine of the middle ages encouraged Christians to be kind to the poor. At the beginning, Christianity was a religion representing the working people at the bottom. Although its doctrines have changed several times, the elements of caring for the poor and doing good deeds have remained. Christian theology believes that the poor are the representatives of god on earth, poverty is sacred, wealth is the symbol of sin, the rich to the poor to provide alms, is to donate to god, can alleviate their SINS, in the end of the judgment to reduce the pain of the soul, can enter heaven. Since poverty was neither considered a defect nor a crime, ecclesiastical law asserted that the rights of the poor must be protected. Church jurists claim that it is the duty of every Christian to help those in need. Christian doctrine encourages believers to offer donations and alms to the poor, the sick and the elderly.

51due留学教育原创版权郑重声明:原创assignment代写范文源自编辑创作,未经官方许可,网站谢绝转载。对于侵权行为,未经同意的情况下,51Due有权追究法律责任。主要业务有assignment代写、essay代写、paper代写服务。

51due为留学生提供最好的assignment代写服务,亲们可以进入主页了解和获取更多assignment代写范文 提供北美作业代写服务,详情可以咨询我们的客服QQ:800020041。

上一篇:The annual performance evaluat 下一篇:University of Minnesota