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Norman influence on England

2019-01-21 来源: 51due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- Norman influence on England,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了诺曼人对英国的影响。在1066年,诺曼底公爵威廉率领军队横渡英吉利海峡,完成了对英国的征服。这场征服给英国带来了深远的影响,不仅仅在社会制度,文化,经济还是外交方面,都深刻得影响着英国。它给英国完成向封建制度的转换创造了条件,并使英国进入了中世纪。

Norman,诺曼人对英国的影响,assignment代写,paper代写,北美作业代写

1066 William, duke of Normandy, led his army across the English channel, completing the conquest of England. The conquest had a profound effect on Britain, not only in terms of social system, culture, economy and diplomacy. This paper aims to expound the influence of normans on England and to understand the important position of Norman conquest in British history.

In the 11th century, when Danish pirates were invading Britain, Edward the confessor, the young heir to the British throne, took refuge from the flames of war in his cousin, the duke of Normandy, during which he made a promise to pass the throne to the duke William. In 1066, the penitent Edward has no heir, the sage parliament elected penitent Edward identified for king Harold, in the face of such situation, the duke of Normandy, France in order to win the king William inheritance, swim across the English channel to Britain with a great army launched an offensive, and conquered England, this incident was a turning point for the British history, has brought the profound influence.

Before the Norman conquest, England had formed a hierarchical society, but there was no strict feudal system. Later, king Alfred reformed the military system and was given a new obligation to serve but not to serve the king politically. William the conqueror, a foreign invader from the mainland, brought a relatively mature feudal system, and confiscated a large area of land in the whole country at one stroke to divide the land. The land system changed, and the nobles continued to enjoy hereditary rights in the territory, but in terms of land relations, they only had the right to occupy the land, and they also had to perform military service and pay taxes to the king. The ownership of land was in the hands of the king, and this change made the king have an absolute advantage in the land relationship. In terms of religion, king William actively carried out reforms, appointing trusted Roman bishops to replace the original native bishops in Britain, and establishing religious laws to separate the church from the local courts and make the church independent. This made the bishop's orders only be implemented with the consent of the king. Moreover, the feudal duty of the church was clarified, and the feudalization of the church was completed. On August 1, 1086, William the conqueror held an oath of allegiance in Salzbury, requiring all the lords to take part in and show "obeying" to him. Even though the oath of allegiance did not include all the free people at this time, it was enough to show that from the anglo-norman period, the complete British system of bannerage was formed.

After the Norman conquest, due to the rapid reshuffle of nobles and bishops into the Norman, Norman became the official language of the British ruling class, the status of English plummeted. The iron rule of the Norman dynasty rapidly established Britain as a stable country, and the hard-won stability of the British people increased the opportunities for language integration. With the change of times, the Norman people realized that the language was more and more difficult to adapt to the administrative needs, and many ruling classes began to learn English, while the bottom class had to learn Norman to improve their status and knowledge, and the number of people who mastered two languages gradually increased, which gave birth to the new English. Later, in order to avoid being influenced by the French, the conflict between the English king and the French king over territory and inheritance rights indirectly accelerated the integration of the normans and the English. Later, when the French adopted Paris and France as their standard and denounced Norman as a country language, the Norman aristocracy began to abandon French. After the hundred years war between England and France, the Norman people completely integrated into the British society, and English influenced by the Norman language has inevitably become the standard language on the land of England.

Before the Norman invasion of Britain, France and Britain did not have a major dispute, although the Norman conquest of the British island brought a long period of stability, but it also sowed the seeds of hundreds of years of enmity between the British and the French. The normans were originally vikings who, after landing on the northern and western coasts of France in the 9th and 10th centuries, plundered almost all of the great French cities. In 911, king Charles iii of France signed the treaty of st. kreil with the Danish pirate leader rolo, which gave the Seine estuary to the danes and made him the duke. On this basis, the danes established the duchy of Normandy. After the establishment of the duchy, it was quickly frenchised and accepted the French language, culture and religion. Although it was nominally subject to a duchy of the frankish kingdom, the duchy of Normandy remained independent for a long time and was not under the control of the French king. As a result, successive French Kings wanted to reclaim the territory of the duchy of Normandy. The Norman conquest brought the conflict between the duchy of Normandy and the king of France to England. After the normans established themselves in England, the British people on the island of Great Britain had the obligation to prevent the French king from taking over the land on the European continent. In addition, the British king later wanted to fight for the right to inherit France, and the conflict between Britain and France escalated, foreshadowing the 100-year war between Britain and France.

After the Norman conquest, out of political necessity, the whole dynasty implemented the centralized system, which laid the foundation for the establishment of a unified English legal system. William the conqueror, in order to ease the conflict between the normans and the English in the early days of the dynasty, continued to keep the common law which had been used in England for a long time, but at the same time sent the treasurers to everywhere to supervise the local governments and laws to strengthen the rule. After the judicial reform carried out by his successor, Henry ii, Britain formed a set of common law, which was different from the previous local customs. It was the law recognized by the state to be used in the whole country, and it changed the chaotic situation of the Germanic legal order in which Britain mixed various backward laws. This legal order also transcends time and region, overcomes the parochialism of the British Isles, and reaches the unprecedented world. The common law order is the solid foundation of the modern western legal system, and it is known as the world's three legal systems together with the civil law system and the socialist law system.

In the 9th and 10th centuries, France was not short of foreign invasion. Because the weak central government was unable to organize a national defense, it had to allow the Lord to build his own castle to prevent invasion. Later, after the normans became French vassals, they also mastered the technology of building castles. At this time, Britain was not a feudal society, and there were few castles, which indirectly made duke William determined to conquer Britain. In 1066, duke William invaded Britain. He gained a military advantage by using a simple wooden castle as a cover. He defeated Harold and ruled Britain. After gaining the title of king of England, William the conqueror deeply realized the great role of castles in resisting foreign invasion. In order to ensure the stability and tranquility of the new country, he encouraged the lords to build castles. In fact, it did guarantee the long-term stability of British society and put an end to Britain's inability to resist foreign invasion for hundreds of years. At the same time, the introduction of the castle was accompanied by the improvement of the English feudal system. Under the perfect system of seigniorage, the central government could strengthen the rule of the country, because the castle met the needs of exercising the power of touring at that time.

The influence the normans brought to England was all-around and historic. It set the stage for the transformation of England to feudalism and made Britain enter the middle ages. The end of the Norman conquest of England centuries of seven countries simultaneously, the stability of the central government, hundreds of years later for England against foreign invasion and stable development played a huge role, in a sense, the British began to become the European powers in nature, dominate the world for her influence world history process laid a solid foundation.

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