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Institutional change in Britain

2019-01-02 来源: 51due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- Institutional change in Britain,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了英国的制度变革。政治制度的变革促进了经济制度的变革,经济制度的变革又促进了技术变革和经济增长。这些新的制度产生了一个强国,它足以在一种前所未有的程度上以有效的方式获取资源。并且,促进了英格兰在国际关系中的强势地位、一个世界性大帝国的产生以及最终形成无人匹敌的格局。因此,近代英国崛起的动力之一毋庸置疑是其各领域的制度变革。

Institutional change,英国制度变革,assignment代写,paper代写,北美作业代写

The changes in the British political system in modern times had a huge impact on the world. "The British government is the most outstanding one that has never been heard of in the world in terms of its influence on the political thoughts and institutions of other countries". The institutional reform in modern Britain mainly includes the following aspects:

The formation of Britain's modern parliamentary system began after the bourgeois revolution in the 17th century. At the beginning of the revolution in the 17th century, the British bourgeoisie took the lower house of parliament as the position to fight against the king, and the struggle between parliament and the power of the king became one of the direct causes of the outbreak of the revolution. In 1628, the United Kingdom adopted the petition of rights, the main content of which was: the king could not collect taxes without the consent of parliament; No one can be arbitrarily arrested without presenting specific evidence of the crime; Military law cannot be applied at will in peacetime; No garrison may be stationed arbitrarily in any resident's home; And so on. In March 1629, Charles I dissolved parliament, leading to the outbreak of the British bourgeois revolution. The "long parliament" was once the leading center of the bourgeois revolution. In January 1649, Charles I was guillotine. At the same time, parliament passed a resolution: "under god, the people are the source of all legitimate power; the house of Commons, which meets in parliament, is elected by and on behalf of the people and has the highest power in this country... "On May 19, 1649, the British parliament passed a resolution:" the present parliament, by its functions, declares and provides that the people of England, and all the people belonging to its territories and regions, are and are thereby constituted, created, established and united as a republic and free state. It will be governed by the highest authority of the people, the people's representatives in parliament and the officials they appoint to serve the welfare of the people, without the need for any king or house of lords. These two resolutions reflect the modern parliamentary system -- the idea of sovereignty in the people, and show that the modern parliamentary system in Britain began to emerge. In 1689, has a great influence to the British parliament passed the bill of rights, law: "whoever, without the prior permission of the council with the authority of the king stop law or law enforcement power overflowing, illegal power", "excuse of prerogative, without parliament, for the king and the duties or for the use of the king, and the money, exceed the time limit of parliament or way of illegal". In this way, the bill of rights declared the establishment of the modern British parliamentary system in the form of statute law. During the bourgeois revolution in Britain in the 17th century, the modern parliamentary system was formed. It can be seen that it was mainly reflected in two aspects: first, in the struggle with the king, the power of parliament was constantly expanded, and eventually surpassed the king to become the highest authority of the country; Second, in parliament, the power of the lower house of parliament is constantly expanding. The British parliamentary system is known as the "mother of parliaments", and its established system and form have become the model followed by other countries. At the same time, on the one hand, the formation and development of the modern parliamentary system is the result of the social development and reform in modern Britain. On the other hand, the establishment of the modern parliamentary system further promoted the social changes in modern Britain.

In 1215, the magna carta of liberty stipulated that the king could not levy taxes arbitrarily, that personal property could not be infringed upon, that free men could not be arrested arbitrarily, and so on. This shows that although the power of the king of England is supreme, it must be subject to laws and practices. Since then, with the rise of parliament, the power of the king of England has been restricted by three principles: first, the king cannot legislate without the consent of parliament. Second, the king may not levy taxes without the consent of parliament. Third, he must govern according to the law of the land, and if he violates the law, his advisers and charge d 'affaires shall be held accountable. As mentioned above, due to the power struggle between parliament and the king, the British bourgeois revolution broke out in the mid-17th century. In 1689, the British parliament passed the influential bill of rights, which imposed various restrictions on the royal power. Parliament became the highest authority in the country. Shortly thereafter, parliament passed the rebellion act, which provided that the army could only be recruited and maintained for one year at a time without the consent of parliament. Once the bill was passed, it was repeated every year to prevent the king from destroying it. Thus parliament deprived the king of the right to recruit standing armies. In 1694, parliament enacted the triennial act, which required parliament to meet at least once every three years. The term of office of each parliament shall not exceed three years. In 1701, parliament passed the act of succession to the throne, which, in addition to setting the order of succession, stipulated that the king should no longer make his decisions as freely as he had done in the past. In order to avoid the king's power over the authority of the law, parliament replaced the king with the right to appoint judges. The power of the king to pardon was also challenged, and the king was not free to pardon those condemned by parliament. This established the principle that parliament was higher than the royal power and the judiciary was independent of the royal power. Thus, the constitutional monarchy was finally established in Britain. In the 17th century, Britain was the first country in history to establish a constitutional monarchy. Most European countries were still under the centralized autocratic monarchy system. This political system innovation undoubtedly became a model for other countries to follow, and it was also one of the institutional guarantees for Britain to eventually become the "empire where the sun never sets". The British historian toynby commented that "the reason why the United Kingdom was able to successfully fill old bottles with new wine without exploding" was "a kind of constitutional victory, which should be regarded as an amazing feat". "The political invention of the British parliamentary government provided a smooth social environment for the industrial system that the British later invented."

Britain is the birthplace of political parties and party system, which is inseparable from the development of its parliamentary system. During the reign of Charles ii, in 1674, after the earl of danby became the king's main adviser, he established a group loyal to the king in the lower court, called the "court party", which represented the interests of the declining feudal landlord class, and advocated to expand the royal power, limit the role of parliament, and advocate Catholicism in religious belief. At the same time, with the era, headed by the earl, established the "hard time emerging", its composition is complicated, both to occupy land, his new aristocracy in revolution stand in the revolution, and seeks the wealth for industry adept businessman, financiers and freelancers, save the pie admits the monarchy, the necessity of and adhere to the monarchy, strengthen the power of parliament, advocate a religious tolerance policy on religion, against the Catholic church. On the question about the duke of york, James throne, two pie is divided, "hard time emerging school of MPS are firmly opposed to" James succeeded to the throne, in the 1680 parliamentary recess, petitions said their attitude, and requires a parliament "exclusion act", this group of people known as the "petitioner". The "court party" is the main group of people against the "petitioners" very much, they are called "haters". The two groups were hostile to each other, attacked each other, and called each other derogatory names. The petitioners were called whigs, the haters Tory. At this point, the whigs and the tories came into being. However, this is not a political party in the modern sense, because they still refer to a number of unstable parliamentary factions, with no political platform, no fixed organization and no authoritative leader. However, the emergence of these two parliamentary factions provides the necessary conditions for the emergence of political parties in the modern sense. After the "glorious revolution" in 1688, parliament became the highest power organ of the country and played an increasingly important role in the political life of the country. Whig party and Tory party gradually transformed into political parties in the modern sense in the parliamentary activities. In 1694 and 1710, whig and Tory one-party cabinets emerged. From 1714 to 1760, George I and ii of Hanoverian dynasty had been reusing whigs, suppressing the tories and forming whig oligarchy. In 1760, George iii took the throne, and he tried to restore absolute monarchy by excluding whigs from the cabinet and reusing the tories. When George iii became king, the whigs split into four factions: Newcastle, temple, granville, and bloomsbury. In 1762, the marquis of rodgingham founded a banquet club based on the Newcastle school, which marked the beginning of the first "organized opposition" in British history -- the rodgingham school. This pie is mainly composed of some of the major issues in the agreement of the conclusion is more radical youth member, according to the need of the courtyard outside the party meeting regularly, and innovation system, set up party supervisor, is responsible for collecting intelligence, convey information, urged party members to attend the council meeting, the party's discipline. At the same time, through the party's theorists Edmund burke's theory of propaganda, the necessity of promoting political parties, public demand establish party government. After the death of 1782, rockin um, check zhan became the leader of "organized opposition" fox, rockin set was renamed the fox. This faction began to set up party funds in the 1980s, and began to carry out campaign propaganda in a planned and organized way, and formed the embryonic form of the central party department around the fund manager. By 1790, the party had taken control of five London newspapers and had established a propaganda base for the party. In 1830, althorpe was elected leader of the whigs in the house of Commons, the first public election of a party leader in British history. Obviously, these developments have laid the foundation for the emergence of the political party system in the modern sense. Under the influence of whigs, the tories also established "Peter's clubs", established supervisors and party activity funds, controlled newspapers and strengthened local activities. The first reform of parliament in 1832 was a turning point in the development of the British political party system. 1833 is generally regarded as the year when the Tory party was renamed the conservative party and 1839 as the symbolic year when the whig party was renamed the liberal party. The first parliamentary reform brought about changes in the organizational construction of the two parties: the formation of the system of supervisors: supervisors are inspectors of party discipline, who require their party members to vote in accordance with the will of the party when voting in the parliament, and act as examiners to verify the voting results. The establishment of the permanent institutions of the party: the tories established the "carden" club in 1832, which is the first modern sense of the central party organization in Britain; 1836 the reform club, a permanent liberal institution, was proclaimed. Under the central organization, the two parties have also established local permanent organizations responsible for the development of party members and the registration of voters. Establishment of party funds: before and after the reform of parliament, both parties have set up campaign funds. It is estimated that in the first half of the 19th century, the conservative party and the liberal party each had a campaign fund of 30,000 or 40,000 pounds. After the second parliamentary reform in 1867, political parties in the modern sense and their party system were formed. The conservative party established the "national union of conservative associations and constitutional associations" in 1867, and the "central committee of the conservative party" in 1868. Two years later, it was named the "central headquarters of the conservative party". By 1887, there were 1,100 conservative local associations. In 1877, the liberal party established the "liberal national association"; As of 1888, the liberals had 716 local associations. By the end of the 19th century, three basic facts had actually taken shape: there was already a permanent group of closely knit members of parliament; There are permanent organizations outside parliament that have a clear relationship with groups within parliament and are closely integrated under the same political labels; These organizations, both inside and outside parliament, continue to influence voters. These are the characteristics of the modern British political party system, which has been formed in Britain. On the one hand, the parliamentary system has led to the emergence and development of the modern political party system. On the other hand, the modern party system improved the parliamentary system of modern Britain.

Modern parliamentary system, a constitutional monarchy, the formation and development of the modern political party system and cabinet led to the modern system of Britain's "sovereignty" in parliament, it is the system cause further reform of the political field to other aspects, such as the emergence of modern civil service system, the local administrative system reform, the reform of the judicial system and the reform of the electoral system, and so on. A series of political system changes have formed the political system protection of domestic property rights, economic activities, freedom of belief and individual freedom, thus promoting the economic system reform of modern Britain.

History has shown that it was institutional changes in the political and economic spheres that ultimately led to the rise of modern Britain. Around 1500, Britain was still a "backward" country without a strong navy and a majority of rural population. There were only two sources of revenue: a large number of wool production and a powerful woolen industry. The situation was much the same in pre-renaissance Italy. However, by the middle and late 19th century, Britain had become the "workshop of the world", "monopoly of world trade", "world financial center", "maritime overlord" and "world's largest colonial empire". American scholar Thomas K McGraw said: "in general, the British empire in the 18th and early 19th centuries the development is very breathtaking, by 1850, the British empire become one of the largest empire in human history. And some people think it may be the most powerful empire since ancient Rome. The change of political system promotes the change of economic system, and the change of economic system promotes the change of technology and economic growth. "These new arrangements have created a powerful country capable of accessing resources in an effective manner on a scale never seen before. It has also contributed to England's strong position in international relations, the emergence of a world empire and the eventual formation of an unrivaled structure. Therefore, one of the driving forces of the rise of modern Britain is undoubtedly the institutional changes in various fields. At the same time, the author should emphasize two points: first, institutional reform is a complex process. "An institutional order is an extremely complex and flexible system, and not everything can turn it upside down. Only changes of a certain quality and scale can transform production patterns and initiate a self-sustaining economic development process. In other words, only appropriate, appropriate, certain quality and scale of institutional change, can eventually lead to the rise of a great power. Second, the role of the system can not be absolute, that is, do not agree with the absolute "system determinism". Marxism thinks, economic base decides superstructure, superstructure also has certain active action at the same time. On the one hand, institutional change is the comprehensive product of various political, economic, social and cultural factors. On the other hand, once the system reform occurs, it will further promote the benign development of its politics, economy, society and culture. Should we reflect on the rise of China today from an institutional perspective? Today's China, with 5,000 years of outstanding cultural traditions, an advanced socialist political system and more than 20 years of economic achievements in reform and opening up, should make its due contribution to the world in terms of institutions.

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