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Ecological literary criticism in the United States

2018-11-02 来源: 51due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- Ecological literary criticism in the United States,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国的生态文学批评。发展到如今,美国生态文学批评已经历了三个阶段。第一阶段主要研究自然与环境是怎样在文学作品中被表达的。而第二阶段则把重点放在努力弘扬长期被忽视的描写自然的文学作品上,对美国描写自然的文学作品的历史、发展,及其风格体裁等作了深入的探讨和研究。生态文学批评的第三阶段试图创建一种生态诗学,通过强调生态系统的概念,加强生态文学批评的理论建设。生态批评发展到今天,在创建理论体系方面取得了不少成就,提出了许多有意义的思想。

literary criticism,美国生态文学批评,assignment代写,essay代写,美国作业代写

Through the development of the ecological literary criticism and the analysis of the main content, illustrates the United States in the process of the development of modern industrial civilization were about the change of environment ethics, this thought is reflected in tourism activities, the formation of the concept of ecological tourism and behavior, and made a lot of experience, this to our country tourism activities and other economic behavior has a certain reference significance.

The concept of eco-literary criticism can be traced back to the 1970s. In 1972, Joseph Mick in live comedy: literature ecology puts forward the concept of "literary ecology", the study of the biological subject appear in the literature.

So far, the American eco-literary criticism has gone through three stages in just over ten years. The first stage mainly studies how nature and environment are expressed in literary works. According to ecological critics, an old model of nature in many works is that nature is either portrayed as an idyllic idyll and virgin land, or as a miasmatic swamp or a callous wilderness. The second stage of eco-literary criticism focuses on the efforts to carry forward the long-neglected literary works about nature, and makes an in-depth study of the history, development, achievements, styles and genres of American literary works about nature. The third stage of eco-literary criticism attempts to create an eco-poetics, and strengthens the theoretical construction of eco-literary criticism by emphasizing the concept of ecosystem. Nowadays, ecocriticism has made a lot of achievements in the establishment of theoretical system and put forward many meaningful ideas. For example, "environmental ethics theory".

Ecocriticism is a very complex and open system of criticism, which is also characterized by literary criticism and cultural criticism. Based on the whole point of view of ecological philosophy and the point of connection, ecocriticism is closely related to nature, and it eloquently reveals that ecological crisis is the crisis of human civilization, human nature and imagination. Therefore, to solve the ecological crisis from the root, only by the natural science is not enough, must have the humanities and social science widely participation, guide actively, must break through the bondage of anthropocentrism thought breaking mechanism, dualism and reductionism based the boundaries of traditional disciplines, from the interdisciplinary perspective, cross-cultural, even across civilization to search for some fundamental measures to solve the ecological crisis.

Although the definition methods of eco-literary criticism vary greatly, they basically embody such characteristics. The second is to pay attention to how literature thinks about the relationship between human beings and other creatures and the world around them, and try to find out the influence of thoughts and views related to nature in literature on human behavior. Thirdly, interdisciplinary literary research involving literature, bioecology and deep ecology. Fourth, with a strong awareness of ecological responsibility, to promote the awareness of ecological responsibility of all mankind as its own responsibility; Fifth, the ecological centralism principle which follows the ecological whole view.

Eco-tourism is a kind of borderline eco-engineering and tourism activity guided by ecological principles and oriented by ecological environment and natural environment. Compared with traditional tourism, eco-tourism has many characteristics. From the perspective of demand, ecotourism is a form of tourism activity based on natural or human resources and returning to nature. From the perspective of supply, ecotourism is a sustainable development mode that integrates ecological thoughts in the whole tourism system and guides its orderly development. The goal is to realize the unity and maximum benefit of the three aspects of the ecological, economic and social benefits in tourism development. From the point of view of tourism destinations, eco-tourism destinations are some natural and cultural ecosystems that have been protected completely. From the perspective of the scale of tourism, it emphasizes the miniaturization, and tourism activities are limited to the bearing capacity of the ecosystem. From the activity form, the tourists personally participate in the natural and cultural ecosystem, understand the mystery of eco-tourism in the actual experience, and enhance the awareness of environmental protection in the activity. These features make the rapid rise of eco-tourism in nature reserves, greatly promoting the development of tourism in these areas.

In 1992, the American society of ecological tourism ecological travel limited to: "in order to understand the culture of the local environment and the natural history knowledge, have the destination to natural areas of tourism, the development of the tourism activities in as far as possible do not change the integrity of the ecosystem at the same time, create opportunities for economic development, make the protection of natural resources financially benefit the local residents." Thus, Americans put forward four criteria for ecotourism: the minimum impact on the environment, the maximum respect for nature and culture, the maximum economic benefits, and the maximum entertainment satisfaction for tourists.

Under the influence of American eco-literary criticism, ecotourism has achieved good development and gained many experiences, which are worth learning from:

We should combine protection with creation to create a better ecological environment. In the United States, almost all industrial development and urban construction give priority to environmental greening and cultural protection. Therefore, large cities and towns have basically maintained a beautiful green environment and preserved important cultural relics.

Design new scenic spots and scenic spots by using ecological principle. Taking into account cultural, cultural, historical, geographical, climatic, environmental and other factors, and making use of local building materials as much as possible to reflect local features, emphasizing the coordination between human and nature, human and architecture, human and animal and plant.

Legislation was adopted to ensure the healthy development of eco-tourism. We will protect the ecological environment and develop ecotourism through legislation. In 1916, the United States passed a law establishing the national park service, which put the management of national parks on a legal track. In recent years, national laws such as the Clean Air Act, the clean water act and the protection of species act have had a profound impact on ecotourism activities.

Ecocriticism adheres to the tenet of ecology -- the concept of interconnection, which connects nature, human and culture, and transcends the boundaries between disciplines to find the fundamental strategy to solve the global ecological crisis. The idea and behavior of eco-tourism is the true embodiment of this creed. As a country with rapid economic development, in the process of learning from this ecological cultural thought, we should combine the thought of harmony between man and nature in our cultural tradition to promote the harmonious development of man and nature.

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