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Assignment代写:Cultural dimension of China and France

2018-09-14 来源: 51due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- Cultural dimension of China and France,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了中法文化维度。在全球化时代,不同国家之间的文化交流越来越多,但文化的差异却可能导致交流中的误解甚至冲突。中法两国在文化维度上有差异,也有近似的地方。在权力距离这个维度上,可以看出中国和法国的接近之处,两者均属于高权力距离的社会文化。在个人主义这个维度上,法国是个人主义的,而中国则是典型集体主义的。不同文化的差异既表现在社会行为和社会习惯方面,也体现在更深层次的价值观方面。

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In the era of globalization, different countries have more and more cultural exchanges, but cultural differences may lead to misunderstandings and even conflicts in exchanges. There are differences and similarities in "cultural dimensions" between China and France. These differences are just a reflection of the ideological differences formed in China and France over thousands of years. Understanding the root causes of these differences will help Chinese and French cultures to understand and communicate with each other.

With the rapid development of communications and information technology, the exchange of goods, services, production factors and information is becoming more and more convenient, and the globalization of the world economy has been further developed. But it also adds to the debate about the negative effects of globalization. In the conflict of civilization and the reconstruction of world order, the American scholar Samuel huntington proposed that globalization would further lead to the conflict of civilization. Because of this, the comparative study of culture has more profound significance than ever before. To face up to and respect cultural diversity, compare and analyze the causes of cultural differences and differences, and play a very positive role in eliminating misunderstanding and prejudice among different cultural groups and enhancing mutual understanding and trust.

China and France, as big countries with long historical and cultural traditions in the east and the west respectively, have important cultural and economic exchanges in the 21st century. By comparing the differences between China and France in "cultural dimensions", the author tries to trace the origin of these differences and find the differences between the two countries' ideological systems, so as to provide another idea and reference for the study of Chinese and French culture.

As early as the 19th century, e. b. Tylor proposed the definition of "culture". He believed that the complex whole acquired by a person as a member of society can be called culture, including knowledge, belief, art, morality, law, custom, etc., as well as other abilities and habits. That is to say, culture is first of all a complex whole, but contains multiple layers, each of which has different forms of expression. In order to further analyze and compare different cultures,Geert Hofstede proposed the theory of national cultural dimensions. Hofstede studies the cultural characteristics of different countries and compares and analyzes the culture and behavior of people in different countries qualitatively and quantitatively in four different cultural dimensions. However, his research and the original four dimensions are based on western culture and western perspective, so some scholars think that his analysis has certain limitations. Geert Hofstede and Michael Harris Bond later proposed a fifth dimension, "Confucian impetus", to supplement and develop his theory of national cultural dimensions.

Geert Hofstede conducted a questionnaire survey among 117,000 employees in more than 40 countries. Based on the analysis of the results of a large number of questionnaires, he believed that culture could be compared in different dimensions. The first is to analyze the size of power distance in different cultures. Countries with large power distance tend to accept and recognize the uneven distribution of power within social organizations. Countries with small power distance tend to think that power within social organizations should be distributed more fairly and oppose the hierarchy. The second cultural dimension analyzes whether different cultures tend to be individualistic or collectivist. Individualism emphasizes individual autonomy, individual value and the right of free choice, while collectivism emphasizes the interests of social collectives and the obligations and responsibilities of individuals as a member of society. The third cultural dimension is the gender analysis of culture, that is, to analyze whether a specific national culture is more masculine or more feminine. A male-oriented culture values competition, aggressiveness and success, while a female-oriented country values harmony, balance, quality of life and mutual concern. The fourth cultural dimension tends to establish procedural rules and institutions, pursue absolute truth and professional knowledge, seek to understand the world through a clear logic system, and avoid uncertainties in life through these. On the contrary, the uncertain accepting culture recognizes and accepts the ambiguity in social relations, emphasizes empiricism and pragmatism, and accepts the pluralism of social phenomena. By analyzing the data of 20 countries, Hofstede and Bond discussed the relationship between Confucian culture and economic growth in different countries and regions in east Asia, and thus proposed his fifth cultural dimension -- Confucian impetus. This dimension, also known as time orientation, differentiates different social cultures through different attitudes towards time in different cultures. A long-term oriented culture values long-term development outcomes and saves money. And short-term oriented social culture looks forward to near-term results and is more willing to consume in advance.

Geert Hofstede scores more than 50 countries and regions in the world on these five cultural dimensions through a large number of questionnaires, and by marking the scores on different dimension coordinate axes, provides the researcher with intuitive and specific graphical comparison. See figure 1.

After Hofstede put forward the theory of cultural dimensions, other social scientists have done a lot of research in this field. Hofstede's theory of cultural dimensions is widely used in management, sociology, education and intercultural studies. Although some scholars criticized Hofstede's cultural dimensions for oversimplification, the validity of Hofstede's cultural dimensions theory has been verified by a series of subsequent studies. Therefore, we also use hofst-ede cultural dimension data as the basic data of our research.

On the dimension of power distance, it can be seen that China and France are close, both belong to the social culture of high power distance. In an introduction to Chinese cultural history, qian mu proposed that the fundamental difference between Chinese and western cultures lies in the difference between farming culture and commercial culture, and his discussion on the influence of geographical environment on cultural formation is very meaningful. Chinese history is a typical household - based farming society. In the Gaul era, France was also an agricultural area with fertile land and humid climate, and its social structure was dominated by tribes linked by family blood. Farming culture is a kind of ethic-based culture, paying attention to the division of family members and hierarchy. This directly determines that a civilization based on farming culture is more important to social hierarchy and higher power distance than a commercial civilization that focuses more on equal contractual relationships. The ethical relations in the Chinese Confucian system of thought give everyone a clear position in the society, and then establish a ruling order. Liang shu-ming believes that China is a social structure of "ethical standard" with family as the core, and such ethical relation is the embodiment of high power distance. The proportion of the modern French agricultural population is already less than 2% of the total population, but we still see clearly the imprinting of the traditional agricultural culture of France through the power distance.

In the dimension of individualism, France is individualistic and China is typical collectivism. The collectivism factor in Chinese culture can be traced back to the ancient times of water control. Wei tfu believed that the governance of the great rivers created the absolutism of the east. In a sense, water control requires a lot of human input and cooperative labor. Each individual must pay for the collective goal, and the return generated may not be directly related to the individual's effort. Such activities tend to cultivate collectivism. In the view of righteousness and benefit advocated by Confucianism, righteousness is more than benefit, and we should always remember the "public benefit". Therefore, both Confucius and mencius stressed the public interest over the individual interest, which can be said to be the foundation of the tendency of collectivism. The idea of French individualism can be traced back to the origin of the whole western civilization -- Greek civilization. Greek civilization is a very characteristic city-state civilization. The population of each city-state is limited, therefore, the city civilization must value the value and function of each citizen, and citizens are respected. This leads to a strong belief in individual value, individualism and individual dignity in civilization. During the movement of the wise men in the 5th century BC, plotegora proposed that "man is the measure of all things" and emphasized the value of human existence and the development of human personality. Socrates famously said, "know thyself." From the 14th century to the 17th century, the Renaissance movement that emerged from Italy and swept across France bore the banner of reviving Greek culture, propagating the freedom and development of individual character, and once again spreading individualistic thought widely. During the period of French enlightenment, it emphasized rationality and opposed feudal monarchy, and advocated natural human rights, sovereignty of the people and equality of human beings. These thoughts are closely connected with each other, which deeply influenced the French culture and even the whole western civilization.

In terms of gender orientation, Chinese culture tends to male values, while French culture tends to female values. Confucian values initiative and initiative, saying "heaven moves and keeps improving". Chinese civilization originated in the Yellow River valley, a region with frequent floods, and the management of the Yellow River, and the long-term struggle with floods has been the normal life of ancient Chinese in the Yellow River valley. This long struggle with nature has fostered an enterprising spirit in China's ideological system. Although France is also an agricultural country, its superior geographical conditions, fertile soil, gentle and humid ocean climate suitable for farming, have made France pay more attention to quality of life and harmonious cultural atmosphere.

In terms of Confucian impetus, China is typically long-term oriented. Hofstede doesn't give figures for France, but by comparing savings rates in China, France and the United States, we can get a rough estimate of France's Confucian impetus. China has the highest savings rate, but among western countries, France saves far more than the us. Thus, the United States is typically short-term oriented, while France is long-term oriented. It can be inferred that this is also determined by the traditional characteristics of agricultural countries in China and France. Agricultural activities are characterized by seasons of harvest and seasons of consumption. Harvest is relatively short, whereas consumption takes up most of the year. In addition to preparing for consumption periods, food must be stored for unforeseen natural disasters and lean years. After food storage, it must be carefully used to keep room for long-term survival. This fully demonstrates that saving and thrift are important virtues in an agricultural society. Chinese Confucianism also fully embodies the habit of frugality in the agricultural society.

To sum up, China and France are respectively in different geographical and historical environments and have developed different cultural characteristics. On specific cultural dimensions, there are differences and similarities. These cultural differences also reflect the ideological differences between China and France over thousands of years.

The differences of different cultures are reflected not only in social behaviors and social habits, but also in deeper values. These differences can become obstacles to the direct and smooth communication between different cultures, and may even lead to misunderstandings and conflicts. Through comprehensive comparison and analysis in various aspects, we can trace the ideological system root of differences, which can ensure that different cultures understand and respect each other, draw on each other's strength and develop together. In this era of globalization, only mutual understanding can reduce the negative effects of globalization and avoid cultural conflicts. By actively carrying out cultural exchanges at various levels and channels, and fully promoting cultural diversity, more harmony will be brought to the world.

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