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Assignment代写:Renaissance Italian hedonism

2018-08-07 来源: 51due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- Renaissance Italian hedonism,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了文艺复兴时期意大利的享乐之风。在中世纪早期的欧洲,禁欲主义压倒一切,世俗享乐被压制在一定范围。后来在宗教改革运动和人文主义思想的不断冲击下,意大利开始进入一个承前启后的繁荣期。思想的转变、经济的发展使得民众的生活水平和生活态度与以往相比有了很大的转变,而享受生活、追求快乐的风气在社会的每个角落蔓延,人们将自己视为单独的个体,把享乐、欲望看成是人的本性和自然加以推崇。

Renaissance,意大利享乐之风,assignment代写,paper代写,美国作业代写

In early medieval Europe, asceticism prevailed, and worldly pleasures were suppressed to a certain extent. Under the constant impact of the religious reform movement and humanism, the Italian society has entered a period of prosperity. The change of thinking and the development of economy have greatly changed people's living standard and attitude compared with the past. The atmosphere of enjoying life and pursuing happiness has spread in every corner of the society.

"Hedonism" mainly refers to the concept of life that people show in social life with excessive pursuit of physical and mental enjoyment, satisfying secular desires and giving full play to people's natural attributes as the value goal. Early medieval Christian belief and asceticism, as a way of life, were greatly impacted by humanism. People began to think of themselves as individuals and to praise pleasure and desire as human nature and nature. Italians ushered in an era of luxury and sensual desire.

Hedonism, as a value concept, existed in ancient Greece. In ancient Greece, the development of human civilization gave birth to the idea of enjoying life and a happy life. The enjoyment and worship of the happy life of the ancient greeks led to the emergence of hedonism. The ancient Greek theory of happiness was that only spiritual happiness was permanent, stable and profound. Epicurus, the earliest hedonist thinker, once said that happiness is the beginning and end of a happy life. All choices should be based on happiness. He thinks that the purpose of life is to pursue happiness. The hedonism advocated by Epicurus emphasizes the happiness of the body or the senses, which is the origin and basis of all happiness. Even wisdom and culture must satisfy this joy. Hedonists are active in the pursuit of happiness and do everything possible to harvest the fruits of it.

The medieval asceticism was opposite to the ancient Greek hedonism. The religious doctrine of original sin classified human desire and emotion as the representation of original sin, and advocated absolute rationality, rejecting desire and emotion. Ascetic people believe that only by abandoning physical enjoyment and worldly happiness, believing in god, can they be saved by the soul. This ascetic view of life requires people to abandon all worldly pleasures, especially sensual ones. With the economic recovery and the spread of humanism, this ascetic outlook on life has been gradually replaced and broken. Humanism advocates the secular culture with people and nature as objects, advocates the humanitarian spirit, the people-centered secular movement without god as the center, and breaks the asceticism completely. Known as one of the "three heroes of literature," Dante was the first Renaissance man to affirm that "man is a free man." In the theory of free will, vallaye argues that everyone has his own freedom of thought. Only independent human freedom can create miracles on earth and bring benefits to people. However, those ascetic and mysterious illusions can only lead to the death of human beings.

In the early medieval period, even in the feudal society, the material wealth of society was not enough, and the material conditions for the prevailing wind of pleasure were not enough. The humanist movement brought drastic changes to European society, and the urban lifestyle was pushed to the forefront. In terms of the overall structure of society, after the 13th century, cities dominated by industry and commerce came into being or came back to life one after another, which eroded the agricultural natural economy of the great unification of the past. The aristocracy dominated by inherited manor farming also began to operate the commodity economy, and people began to have urban life similar to that of Greece and Rome. Such an unprecedented new class of citizens has stepped onto the historical stage with a new look, and the modern city has emerged in various major cities of Italy. The rapid development of economy and the increase of wealth provide material security for people's enjoyment.

Periodic plague outbreaks in the 14th and 15th centuries increased the cult of hedonism. The black death caused a great touch to people. The love of Christ and the occurrence of plague caused the survivors to reorient their way of life and re-examine the value of life. In the death fear, they aroused people's appreciation of the right to life in a variety of ways. Five generations of experience brought by the black death fear and anxiety, the florentines decided to strive for in the real pleasure in time, whether it's polite aristocratic or civilians surrounded by one of the most fanatical carnalism, luxury, drinking, voluptuousness, like in the carnival and thank the meat section festival but also pushed the hedonism to acme.

The accumulation of wealth has made people's life very different from the frugality and abstinence in the middle ages. Luxury and enjoyment have become new life goals. In such a social environment, many people are more deeply and directly pursuing happiness and enjoying secular life than ever before. The Italian people's clothes, food and housing have all changed dramatically with the aim of enjoying life and pursuing happiness.

Asceticism is under attack, and the belief in openness and freedom is being strengthened. Enjoying life and satisfying one's own needs are the things that everyone has to think about. Clothing, which can reflect the personal aesthetic and wealth status of the carrier, in the transition period by people to play the most incisive. As boccaccio said, showing off, dressing up and realizing every desire of an individual seems to be the most correct goal in life. Aldanzio has described the following details of Italian dressing: "the milanese are always dressed beautifully", "the neapolitans are extremely luxurious in their clothes", and "ferrara and mantua pay great attention to the golden cap". In the 15th and 16th centuries, the great wealth brought by Florence's developed economy led its nobles to increasingly advocate luxurious and exquisite lifestyle. Young men spend their time and money gambling and women doing nothing all day. They are no less fastidious about clothes than women's make-up, with close-fitting long-sleeved clothes, colorful stockings, flat-topped hats of strange shapes and colors, velvet leotards, and silky hemlines and necklines, and accessories such as gloves and shoes often laced with lace. Lorenzo's brother, giuliano, spent 8,000 ducats on his clothes at a tournament. Women's clothing is extremely luxurious. They are made of velvet or silks and furs, often decorated with expensive herbs and jewelry, with delicate pleats, lace skirts and collars. Many rich people also like to decorate the collar of their clothes with different shapes such as leaf shape and star shape and ornaments of different materials such as gold plating, silver plating and porcelain glaze. We can see such luxury accessories in many portraits at that time. As a model for the murals in the monastery of Santa maria novella, she wore a gorgeous pink silk coat inlaid with Venus and a white silk smock embroidered with pomegranates and flowers. The generosity and generosity of Italians in the aspect of clothing consumption fully reflects the affirmation and pursuit of self-consciousness and self-value of people after the break of the shackles of traditional Christian thought, and their preference for luxurious clothes satisfies their desire for secular enjoyment.

Since the 13th century, the diet structure of the Italian people has changed significantly, the food variety has changed from single to rich, the quality has changed from coarse to fine, the cooking technology is more exquisite, the tableware is more exquisite and practical, the dining method is more elegant, the banquet guests pay more attention to the rehearsal. Before the humanist movement, the food in Italy was relatively simple, but after that, people's diet gradually developed to exquisite, extravagant and wasteful, and the diet of residents added many spices and sugar from Arabia, almonds, pistachios, rice, dates and other ingredients. By this time, Italians had begun to understand how to drink mineral water to make their diet more meaty and greasy, and began to drink wine to quench thirst caused by the spices in delicious food. Once considered a luxury food, sugar became a popular food in the 15th century. "No banquet has ever used sugar in any way in large quantities," says pencheroos. Rhubarb, dried fruit, pines and other spices, as well as sugar, make the world a happy place. People drink sugar water instead of pure water, salt is not used as frequently as sugar, and meat, fish and eggs are added with sugar. In other countries and regions of Western Europe at the same time, sugar was still a luxury that only a few aristocrats or wealthy merchants had access to. The trend of people's enjoyment and luxury in food consumption is more prominent in Venice, Florence and other large cities with rapid development. The nobles of Venice had a high demand for food and drink. Due to their geographical advantage, they could easily enjoy the luxuries and spices of the east. When the noble families held the banquet, they only accepted the most exquisite delicacies. In 1460 Venice also banned the consumption of more than half the dugats per person. The variety and luxury of people's food reflect the improvement of people's living standards and the profound influence of social enjoyment on Italian thoughts and lifestyle.

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