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Assignment代写:State capitalism

2018-07-18 来源: 51due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- State capitalism,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了国家资本主义。国家资本主义是一种经济形式或经济成分,而并非一种发展模式。作为一种经济形式,国家资本主义在资本主义社会和社会主义社会都存在。但资本主义制度中的国家资本主义和社会主义制度中的国家资本主义具有不同的内容。资本主义制度中的国家资本主义主要是国有企业等以国家资本形式存在的资本主义。社会主义制度中的国家资本主义并非指国有企业,而是指社会主义性质的经济成分。

State capitalism,国家资本主义,assignment代写,paper代写,美国作业代写

"State capitalism" this is not a new word, as early as the end of the 19th century in the west, as capitalism from the stage of free competition to monopoly phase transition, the bourgeois government stepped up its involvement and intervention on economic activity, some scholars take the above phenomenon known as the "national capitalism", also some people call it the "national socialism". Classic marxist writers such as Engels and Lenin have made a serious analysis and evaluation of the phenomenon of state capitalism. The concept of "state capitalism" they used was clear and definite in its meaning. But in recent years, some western scholars and politicians to the right of China, Russia and other relatively rapid economic growth in emerging countries labeled as "state capitalism", support the development of state economy to attack these countries and participate in international competition in the market is doing "state capitalism", poses a threat to the free market economy. "The rise of state capitalism has greatly reduced the efficiency of global markets and brought populist politics into economic decision-making," they claim. At the same time, "state capitalism" has become a hot topic in the international political and economic circles, attracting attention from all sides. The practice of western minority, is nothing but by denigrating China and other emerging countries, create obstacles to the development of these countries, to curb the national development, maintain the main western countries in the international political and economic pattern and the leading position of the purpose of the supremacy. At a time when the international political and economic pattern is undergoing profound changes, its purpose is clearly impossible to achieve. But their deliberate misuse of the somewhat academic label "state capitalism" has left many people confused and confused. Therefore, it is necessary to make an in-depth analysis of this concept and clarify its exact connotation.

As an economic form, state capitalism exists in both capitalist and socialist societies. They have something in common, something different. Lenin defined state capitalism under capitalism and state capitalism under socialism. He pointed out that state capitalism under capitalist conditions "is a kind of capitalism under which the state power directly controls these or those capitalist enterprises. Under socialist conditions, state capitalism "is capitalism in which we can restrict and define its scope". It can be concluded from these two definitions that the common feature of state capitalism is the capitalist economic form controlled by state power. From this point of view, state capitalism is only one of many economic elements in a social economy. Under the condition of capitalism, national capitalism economy such as state-owned enterprises, there are many private capitalist economy, such as private enterprises, they are in a market economy, free competition and self development. Under socialist conditions, in addition to the state capitalist economy, there is also a state-owned economy and a collective economy that embodies the socialist nature, as well as a large number of private economy and individual economy. Lenin as pointed out in 1921, Soviet Russia at that time, there are five economic sectors: the patriarchal clan, which belongs to the natural economy to a great extent the peasant economy and commodity economy, private capitalism, national capitalism and socialism. MAO zedong pointed out in the Chinese communist party leaders have seven-time, new-democratic economy includes the following components: the socialist nature of the state-owned economy, half of socialist cooperative economy, private capitalism, the individual economy, as well as national and private cooperation national capitalist economy. It is clear that state capitalism is nothing more than a form of economy or an economic component, alongside other economic components. And it has never been a dominant economic component in either capitalist or socialist society.

The state capitalism in the capitalist system and the state capitalism in the socialist system have different contents. State capitalism in the capitalist system is mainly capitalism in the form of state capital, such as state-owned enterprises. As early as the stage of free competition capitalism, state-owned enterprises existed in a small scope. In his letter to Engels of December 8, 1857, Marx showed that there was a phenomenon of state capitalism at that time. Marx wrote: "French capital Business as usual is timid, stingy and cautious. Speculators exist only in sectors where the state is a true business owner, directly or indirectly. It is quite obvious that a big capitalist, like the French government, can survive for a while longer than a private capitalist even if he becomes a comfortable bankrupt. Under the conditions of capitalism, state-owned enterprises are capitalist in nature, and they do not have socialist nature. This is determined by the nature of the bourgeois state. Engels had criticized the capitalism of state-owned enterprises as the view of socialism, he wrote: "the state of every kind of interference free competition - protective tariff, trade associations, tobacco monopoly, nationalization of individual industry, foreign trade companies, the royal ceramics factory - was called" socialism ", it is purely a Manchester bourgeoisie in order to gain for the fabrication. We should criticize this fabrication rather than believe it. In March 1891 in a letter to Max ? Oppenheimer, Engels once again to his own opinions on the issue of nationalization of capitalism. "The nationalization of jobs for surplus workers by state or local authorities and the food trade should, in my view, be a broader issue than the one mentioned in your letter," he wrote. This should include not only the trade in domestic food but also its production. Otherwise, how do you provide jobs for the remaining workers? You know, they become surplus workers precisely because their products have no market. Here, however, we are dealing with the issue of expropriation of private landowners, which is well beyond the reach of modern German or Austrian states. ...... As long as the regime is in the hands of the propertied classes, no nationalisation will eliminate exploitation but change its form. Obviously, in Engels view, the state-owned enterprises, and other countries capital is merely a changed form of capitalism, and can only be subordinate part of the capitalist economy, capitalism will never tolerate the unlimited development of state capitalism. Engels's judgment was vindicated. The implementation of neoliberal economic policies in western developed countries since the 1980s has greatly weakened the elements of capitalism in these countries and strengthened the power of private capitalism.

State capitalism in the socialist system does not refer to state-owned enterprises, but refers to something else. Lenin once the Soviet national capitalist economy form summarized into four kinds: the first is a concession, that the state machinery and equipment production data such as rent to capitalist, the latter by the capitalist way; The second is cooperatives, or small commodity producers' cooperatives. The third is: "the state attracts the capitalists as businessmen and pays them a commission to sell the products of the state and buy the products of small producers." The fourth is: "the state leases state-owned enterprises or oil fields, forests, land and so on to enterprise capitalists." In accordance with the provisions of article 31 of the common program of the Chinese people's political consultative conference, the economy of cooperation between state capital and private capital is an economy of the nature of state capitalism. Under the condition of necessary and possible, should encourage private capital to develop in the direction of state capitalism, such as national enterprise processing, or with state of the joint venture, or in the form of a loan of national enterprises, development of national resources, etc. According to the above standards, the mixed ownership economy in China's current economic composition, as well as some private enterprises that are processing and manufacturing for the state or state-owned enterprises, are the national capitalist economy. Some western scholars and politicians regard China's state-owned enterprises and state sovereign funds as state capitalism, which is both a distortion of the concept of state capitalism and a distortion of the socialist system. China is a socialist country, and the state nature of China determines that the state-owned assets held by the state are the economic components of the socialist nature. At the present stage of China's state-owned enterprises after restructuring, as in a market economy operate independently, self-financing, self-development of commodity producers and operators, but its capital belongs to all the people, belongs to the public nature; Its chief executives are appointed by the government; All its profits are first owned by the state and then distributed among the state, the enterprise and the relevant personnel as required. It plays a leading and dominant role in the national economy, obeys the needs of the country's overall development and long-term development, and reflects the nature of socialism. It also bears a great deal of social responsibility that other economic actors can afford not to. It is not a state capitalist economy, but a socialist economy of the nature of public ownership.

It is wrong for some scholars and politicians in the west to describe state capitalism as a rival model of development to a free-market economy. This is not a new discovery, and scholars have refuted it long ago. After the second world war, the status and role of the state in economic activities have been significantly enhanced worldwide. This is reflected in three aspects: first, developed capitalist countries have repeatedly triggered economic crisis due to the increasing contradiction between private monopoly capitalism and the development of productive forces. In order to alleviate the economic crisis, the bourgeoisie countries had to intervene more and more deeply in economic activities, hence the emergence of state monopoly capitalism. Second, from colonial rule, obtains the national independence of the third world countries in order to realize industrialization as soon as possible, get rid of the control of international monopoly capital, achieve economic independence, have to use the power of the state power to create and support national capitalist economy. Third, the national socialist camp in transforming traditional economy, the construction of the socialist economy into full play in the process of the power of the state power, not only set up directly by the state control and management of the state-owned economy, and the country of the supervision and control of other economic sectors also greatly improved. So in the sixties and seventies of the 20th century, some western scholars based on this, think of a new type of system and development mode, and named as the "national capitalism", and they indiscriminately the nature of these three completely different economic systems all referred to as the state capitalism. Leftwing American academics Alex Dupuy and Barry Truchil criticized this view as early as 1979. They point out that the fundamental basis for distinguishing between different social systems and modes of production is the dominant productive relationship. In the developed capitalist countries and the third world capitalist countries, the dominant production relation is based on the production of the private capital ownership and possession of the surplus value of the capitalist production relations; In socialist countries, the dominant productive relations are those in which the state owns the means of production and the production and distribution of surplus products are controlled by the state. Described in the concept of state capitalism is the developed capitalist countries and the third world capitalist mode of production, and describe the socialist country mode of production, in the theory and logic is vague. Although state intervention and intervention are a prominent phenomenon in contemporary capitalist economy, the capitalist system has not changed fundamentally. Private capital is not subordinate to the state, it is still the dominant form of the capitalist economy, and market operation is not under the control of the state plan. The state, as an inherent element of capitalist production relations, has only played a greater role than before. This change can be reasonably explained in the logical framework of capitalism. The theory of state capitalism does not provide more content, so it is difficult to establish. It is more difficult to describe socialism in the era of planned economy by the state capitalist model. First, in the planned economy sector, the production and distribution of products do not have the attributes of commodities. Second, not the government's economic management departments and the capitalist class delimit equal-sign, on the function and role of the government's economic management departments of the socialist economy can not for their own goals for the accumulation of production materials, also can't buy Labour; Third, in the socialism initial stage, especially in the capitalist world market by many socialist countries do exist some capitalist economy, but it is not the dominant economic form, and supervision by the state policy and restrictions.

Although today's socialism is different from the planned economy era, but it is still essentially is the public ownership as the main body, with the aim to develop common prosperity of the socialist system, it has essential difference with the capitalist system. Current state capitalism of the scholars and politicians to China, Russia and Saudi Arabia, the social system is completely different countries pinched together, forced labeled as state capitalism. Like their predecessors, they have confused the fundamental differences between different social systems, which are both theoretical and logical.

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