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Assignment代写:Hegel's self-discipline and the unity of heteronomy

2018-07-17 来源: 51due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- Hegel's self-discipline and the unity of heteronomy,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了黑格尔的自律和他律的统一。自律和他律问题是德国道德哲学在经过宗教批判和启蒙运动之后争论的一个主题。在这个问题的争论中,黑格尔实现了一个逻辑的综合,以其严谨的思辨体系,在客观唯心主义理念论基础上建立了体现自律和他律统一的独具一格的法哲学。黑格尔认为道德虽然是主观意志的自我规定,但人的自我意志又是受到客观的伦理关系和社会规律规定的。

Hegel's philosophy,黑格尔的自律和他律,assignment代写,paper代写,美国作业代写

Although Kant established the moral philosophy system of self-discipline theory, realized the Copernican revolution of moral philosophy and changed morality from heteronomy to self-discipline, he was criticized by Hegel. Hegel thinks that although morality is the self-regulation of subjective will, people's self-determination is regulated by objective ethical relations and social laws. Morality needs to break through its subjectivity and realize its real content in the ethical stage, otherwise the moral principle and obligation principle have no content. In line with this, good, obligation and conscience, as moral elements, are only subjective and pure forms in the moral stage, which need to be realized in the ethical relations. Morality is the unity of self-discipline and heteronomy. The content of heteronomy needs to be realized in the form of self-discipline.

Self-discipline and heteronomy are the main topics of German moral philosophy after religious criticism and enlightenment. In the course of the argument and deduction of the problem, the continuity and division between the self-discipline theory and heteronomy theory are highlighted. Kant put forward the concept of self-discipline, established the theoretical system of discipline theory, through the theory of fichte's theory of self-discipline and heteronomy of schelling two link transition, Hegel's logic implemented a comprehensive, with its rigorous theoretical system, based on theory of objective idealism philosophy of unity of self-discipline and heteronomy unique philosophy of law. This paper does not need the elaboration of the transition link, but mainly elaborates Hegel's philosophy of self-discipline and the unity of heteronomous law after criticizing Kant's theory of self-discipline.

Hegel's philosophy is also speculative philosophy. Generally speaking, speculative philosophy is a kind of rational thinking which is better than general experience and concrete things. Hegel's philosophy is the monism of objective idealism. His dialectics not only reveals the contradiction in the evolution of ideas, but also reveals the law of dialectical development of contradictions, and advocates solving contradictions in the unity of opposites. He praised Kant for emphasizing the importance of moral autonomy, freedom and self-discipline, but he also saw the emptiness and one-sidedness of Kant's moral view and self-discipline principle. Although he said the idea, the contradiction of the derivation process but he advocated the idea of dating back to at the same time it also embodies in or are externalization, specialization, and in the abstract thought always paid close attention to the content of the concrete. What is valuable is that his idealism contains the content of materialism.

Hegel thinks, absolute spirit is independent existence, self-sustaining, but not from the nature of the self consciousness of independence, but absolute spirit as a concept and settle in the concept of unity of contradiction movement. Hegel's philosophy starts from the absolute idea and deduces the dialectical development process of the idea through the alienation of the absolute idea itself, that is, constant externalization and specialization. In Hegel's terms it is the self-realization of the absolute spirit: from consciousness to self-consciousness, to reason, to spirit; From subjective spirit to objective spirit, through art, religion, philosophy, and finally return to absolute spirit. He described the whole process of the development of absolute spirit in the philosophy book constructed by logic, natural philosophy and spiritual philosophy. Because the book of philosophy begins with the spirit of pure speculation and ends with the absolute spirit of superman, Marx said he was "writing a profound and mysterious biography" of abstract ideas.

Indeed, Hegel's philosophy is difficult to understand from a common sense because it reverses the relationship between matter and spirit. If we say that "spirit is the reality of human life," Hegel would say, "no, human life is the reality of the spirit." In other words, more modern: "material is only spiritual." Nevertheless, the objective spirit described in the philosophy of spirit is, after all, the development process of the spirit and its material existence that we need to understand deeply. According to the general understanding of German speculative philosophy, the nature of the spirit is freedom. Hegel established his "philosophy of law" system on this base, describing the development process from abstract to concrete freedom of will.

According to Hegel's system, as the spirit in the process of definite development, it includes three interrelated links, namely abstract law, morality and ethics. In terms of its development process, abstract law is the external stipulation of free will, while morality is the internal stipulation of free will, and the unification of both is ethics, that is, the reasonable order of the former two. In terms of the form of its spiritual development, the first two links are from objective to subjective, while ethics is the unity of subjective and objective, and hence "true spirit". So sometimes he also calls the three stages of unification an ethical development process. Here, Hegel morality as the development of the ethical spirit of only one stage or link, just "determine one's own spirit", "internal regulation" of free will, and the ethics is comprehensive coverage of the abstract law, moral and ethical objective spirit. The history and reality of the existence and development of ethics are family, civil society, national and even world history.

It can be seen that one of the major differences between Hegel and Kant in spiritual philosophy is that Kant elevates morality and devalues ethics, and highlights subjectivity, self-discipline and moral necessity of spirit. Hegel valued ethics and limited morality, emphasizing the objectivity, heteronomy and inevitability of ethics. He regard morality as a necessary link in ethics, in the understanding of the objectivity of ethics on the basis of the will of moral self-discipline and heteronomy of ethical spirit, at the same time grasp the moral in the unity of self-discipline and heteronomy ought to sex and inevitability. Thus Hegel sees morality not as an attachment to the highest principle, but as a struggle. In his opinion, "there is no virtue without struggle", "virtue is better than the highest and completed struggle". This struggle is not only for evil, evil, but also for our own shortcomings, even for the naive. The struggle mentioned here is the negation and sublation of the transformation process of contradiction.

Should note that Hegel is not mechanically is divided into three pieces of the objective spirit, also is not the moral and ethical simply broke in two, but the unity of the development in the spirit of dialectical analysis of the development process of theory system. This theoretical system also determines that he is fundamentally different from Kant's definition of moral self-discipline and heteronomy. Therefore, to understand Hegel's theory of moral self-discipline and heteronomy, we must connect and unify the three stages of the development of the legal philosophy system. Use a less appropriate metaphor, like for matching color prints, three pieces of stencil reasonably compound, get the whole picture, and will become a dynamic landscape, is not a print, but one n sets series. Therefore, Hegel's system cannot be called moral philosophy in general or ethical philosophy in general. It can be said that the former is subjective law, while the latter is objective law.

In Hegel's philosophy of law system, the so-called "abstract law", in its empirical sense, refers to the relationship between legal rights and economic ownership. The relationship of legal rights is an external stipulation for free will. Morality is the internal rule that free will transcends the rule of the relationship of legal rights and enters the self will itself. As a self-regulation of free will, morality has the meaning of affirming Kant's moral theory, and it is also a special exposition of the distinction between morality and ethics in the system of legal philosophy. The process of self-regulation goes through three stages: motivation, intention and kindness, and the corresponding responsibilities, welfare and conscience. According to Hegel's description of the process of moral spirit development, before the will is manifested in the external behavior, the first emergence of conscious consciousness is the intention, and its own motivation. The generation of motivation is the beginning of the behavior of the process, and its behavior process is bound up with the intentional motivation. The German word for motivation is Bewwceggrund, and the literal translation is "the basis for making things move". That is to say, motivation is the reason why the will to act takes place from the inside out and the result, so this kind of causal necessity implies the responsibility of the action. This is the opportunity and necessity of conscious moral self-discipline consciousness. So Hegel said, "to be more precise, the motive for action is what we call morality."

Rational intelligent self-discipline is inextricably related to the conscious consciousness of subjective rationality. It is impossible for a person to achieve intelligent and conscious self-discipline, or even to lose his normal self-control ability, if he does not realize the connection between his subjective intention and the inevitability of its consequences. As a conscious moral man, not only should be aware of the ulterior motive of own behavior, and should know that there is a connection with behavior intentionally and intentions of the consequences of making homemade promoted to rational behavior of conscious intention. From the "intention" point of view, self-discipline behavior should not only realize that the behavior of the facts in front of him, but also should be rationally realized likely to themselves and others, and even social and far-reaching significance of long term effects of moral mission envisioned their behavior. In this sense, motivation and intention are fundamental to the purpose of moral action and the value of good and evil. In this process, the essence of good and evil lies in the heart, and lies in the heart. That is to say, the good and evil of behavioral motivation have already constituted the morality of free will. It is obvious that motivation is the germination and implementation of moral self-discipline, so Hegel vividly and profoundly called it "the regularity of soul drumming".

In Hegel's view, motivation and intention refer to something, which contains the welfare that the subject of action desires. Such benefits include two interrelated aspects: the intentional universal welfare and the intentional special welfare. The former is the objective aspect of the behavior involving others, while the latter is the subjective aspect of the behavior itself. There is an inalienable link between the two, and true moral rules cannot separate the two. He stressed that people have the right to pursue their own benefits, their own needs as the goal, but also emphasizes the people are not purely biological, not only in the pursuit of private benefit, also should pay attention to the welfare of others, the general welfare, the individual, family, social and national unity. Because individual, special and universal are inextricably linked, the existence in connection is concrete and realistic, otherwise it is abstract and non-realistic. That is to say, not an abstract concept, but by the law and the welfare form, content, substantial external at, or subjective will require to good purpose and in the external references to be realized; And good can only enter into reality through subjective will as the intermediary. That is to say, the will is not good in itself, and only through its own self-action and creation can it have the reality of good and produce a higher state of good. Therefore, Hegel said, "moral motivation is the essence of moral nature." Hegel criticized the Kantian moral "gap theory" between motivation and virtue without meaning.

In Hegel's view, morality not only based in free will, because neither the abstract law or morality, cannot to existence, and must be on the basis of the ethics for the undertaker and objective. That is, moral self-discipline must be borne by the subjective will consciously, also must stand in objective ethical relationship on the base, because the spirit of subjectivity because of its lack of objective aspect, which is itself is lack of objective and content. Therefore, it must be to enter reflect the ethical relationship of objective spirit, for the family, civil society and the objective rules of national ethics, with the content of the deterministic realistic and become a "real" conscience. The true inner conscience, is the main body will get rid of the limitation of their own subjective bias and personal interest and achieve rational reflection on the interests of others and general will, which is within the body reached about personal interests and the interests of others, the individual will and general will of moral confidence. And that's what Hegel's subjective will and good relations of the two aspects: on the one hand, the good is substantive for subjective will, is the value and dignity of the subjective will, should be to good purpose is subjective will and make it all; On the other hand, from the perspective of goodness, subjective will is the intermediary of the realization of good, and good can only enter into reality by taking subjective will as the intermediary.

Hegel's unique usage to the ethics, therefore, does not mean that ethics is a vague concept, but said it is realistic and concrete ethics moral spirit contradict each other, complement each other, the two aspects of unity, is the unity of the tao and virtue, moral and ethical. It is the "living good" because it is the unity of subjective good and self - being good. Therefore, ethical obligation is not a restriction on individual will, but a further enrichment and sublimation of individual will. Ethical obligations are not only "what should be done" for the individual who undertakes them, but are usually not to be put off and done immediately. Only in the unification of conscience and obligation, in the unification of morality and ethics, can individuals be liberated and achieve real freedom. So Hegel said, "the obligation is not to restrict freedom, but only the abstraction of freedom, that is, not freedom."

There is a difference between moral obligation and moral obligation. The difference lies in: in the former, obligations and rights are integrated and the moral freedom is truly realized. In the latter, only the right to know their own knowledge and will should be realized. The former is an obligation of ethical personal relations, or rather, an individual has been liberated. The latter is still in the "ought to be" stage, which limits the natural impulse and abstract freedom, so it is hard to see it as liberation. Hegel said: "in fact, if the moral from the subjective perspective in the form of the general will, then ethics is not only a subjective and will, in the form of self regulation, but also to the concept of will freedom for that content." It can be understood that Kant's principle of moral self-discipline is limited to form, while Hegel's self-discipline not only covers the form of self-discipline, but also reveals the objective content of self-discipline. In this sense, it can be said that Hegel's moral philosophy is the unity of self-discipline and heteronomy, and its content is essentially heteronomous. Kant's self-discipline is a person, and only in the form of individual and performance, while Hegel heteronomy must not only the individual, but also social, because it could not pure is a person, it is personal ideological achievements through social practice consciously internalize.

In this way, Hegel, after separating morality and ethics, regards the two links that have been separated as a unified process of objective spiritual development, which has its rigorous logical construction. He said that morality is only a subjective link, while ethics is a substantive one, which has both objective and subjective links, and is a "living good". This is what we mean by "the universality of reflection in ourselves". It is in this sense, the nature of Hegel's goodness, as a subjective will, but don't make the separation of the two isolated areas, to unify the moral and ethics again at the same time, enrich moral self-discipline has its content and basis. Than Kant put good will and objective ethics from can only dream of "pure rationality" and "absolute command", has more logic rationality of moral development and the practicability of moral principles. The respective characteristics of good and conscience indicate that if they are separated from each other and independent from each other, neither of them is true or realistic. Only when they are relatively unified and integrated with each other can they become a regular and realistic ethics.

Here we can see: the concept of morality and as objective as a subjective will, both to treat each other, each other intermediary links, so there will be "from the outside in" set out in its own reflection and realize the dialectical development of negativity. This is actually the process and regularity of the unification of will self-discipline and heteronomy. In this sense, morality and ethics are the freedom of independent existence through the unity of will. This can say is the meaning of Kant, Hegel certainly thought self-discipline and overcome major contribution, Kant's moral philosophy inherent contradictions on the formation and development of Marx and Engels moral philosophy, also has the direct enlightenment and impetus.

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