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Assignment代写:Carbon emission issues

2017-12-28 来源: 51due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- Carbon emission issues,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了碳排放问题。学术界认为森林、海洋吸收二氧化碳的能力是有限的,只能吸收人类活动新增排放的很小一部分。但这种看法是错误的,人类活动产生的碳排放和自然界本来已有的碳循环总量相比只占很小的一部分。但无论如何,人们应该想办法减少碳排放,以减缓温室效应。

Carbon emission,碳排放,assignment代写,paper代写,留学生作业代写

Human carbon emissions are mainly derived from the use of fossil fuels and other industrial production. Carbon emissions from coal, natural gas, oil and cement accounted for 39.2%, 17.2%, 40.5% and 3.1% of the cumulative emissions in total emissions over 1960-2012 years. The 2012 ratio was 42.8%, 19%, 33% and 5.2% in turn. From the above data, carbon emissions from fossil fuel energy production and utilization accounted for 2/3 of emissions, so the general view was that the way to reduce carbon emissions was to reduce fossil fuel consumption.

Energy is the foundation of economic growth, and all developing countries face the dilemma of developing economies and coping with and mitigating climate change. Under existing ideas and technical conditions, reducing carbon emissions means they have to bear the huge cost of slowing or even stalling. It doesn't make sense in both reality and morality. It is especially difficult for China. Even with more aggressive energy policies, including increasing the proportion of clean energy sources such as renewables and oil and gas, China's coal consumption still accounted for about 60% per cent by 2020.

This assignment will make a new analysis of the current situation of carbon emission, put forward series of innovation theory to reduce carbon emissions, increase carbon fixation, and use the resource efficiently to ensure the market power of the whole process of emission reduction, to achieve sustainable carbon resource recycling and economic low-carbon development.

Now academics believe that forests and oceans have limited capacity to absorb carbon dioxide, only a small fraction of the new emissions from human activity. But in fact, the carbon emissions generated by human activity are only a small fraction of the total amount of carbon cycle already available in nature. Carbon dioxide emissions to the environment in the process of soil carbon respiration are 3000~5000 billion tonnes, which is 8~10 times the annual carbon emissions of about 50 billion tonnes. In 2010, this ratio was 12~16 times. The fact that the carbon dioxide emissions generated by deforestation in the world each year are comparable to the emissions from fossil fuel combustion in the same period can also prove this view

We also know that, whether terrestrial plants or aquatic plants or algae, are carbohydrates, the vast majority of plant carbon is the only source is carbon dioxide, plants each generation of 1kg dry matter will consume carbon dioxide about 1.6kg. In the process of soilless culture plants, as long as the nutrient solution has a small amount of necessary inorganic salts, do not require any organic matter, that is, do not require carbon, you can fully guarantee the normal growth and development of plants. So why does organic manure in the process of food crops grow and develop? Its function is mainly the organic matter under the microorganism action decomposition produces the carbon dioxide and the heat. Without organic manure, crops do not grow but grow badly, and the reason is that there is not enough carbon dioxide for efficient photosynthesis. The experimental results show that the concentration of carbon dioxide in the ambient atmosphere of human production is about 100~2000ppm, and crop yield increases with the increase of carbon dioxide concentration. If the carbon dioxide concentration drops to 50ppm, photosynthesis will stop. In the production practice, it is found that the greenhouse carbon dioxide gas in the greenhouse is accumulated by the plant respiration and the decomposition of soil organic matter, reaching a high level, usually between the 600~1500ppm before sunrise, after sunrise, the crops begin to photosynthesis, and the carbon dioxide concentration in the greenhouses drops rapidly, if there is not sufficient supplement 2 hours or so carbon dioxide concentrations will fall below 100ppm, crops in the carbon dioxide starvation!

It is generally believed that the most suitable carbon dioxide concentration of plant photosynthesis is 800~1500ppm, spraying carbon dioxide in the greenhouse, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the air from the field average concentration of 200ppm to 1200ppm, that is to reach or close to the concentration of carbon dioxide in our office, The growth rate and yield of different varieties of crops increased 60%~200%. In other words, increasing the concentration of carbon dioxide can greatly improve the conditions of plant photosynthesis, promote photosynthesis, improve plant nutrient synthesis and processing. Of course, it also means that plants have multiplied their ability to fix carbon dioxide.

Obviously, the main carbon sources of natural plants are not provided by human activity, and the carbon that plants absorb and reuse comes mainly from the decomposition of the organic matter in the surrounding soil, releasing carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide that comes through air convection and diffusion is only a small proportion. Even if the carbon dioxide concentration in the Earth's atmosphere rises by 50%, from 280ppm to about 380ppm, it is still difficult to change the plant's photosynthesis significantly. Therefore, it is impracticable to increase the environmental carbon sequestration capacity by increasing the area of aquatic and terrestrial plants.

We have been to several chemical plants to investigate, this factory usually has a large amount of carbon dioxide emissions, the scale of dozens of, hundreds of tons of carbon emissions per hour. Communication, the factory's friends are invariably mentioned a phenomenon, factory built in just a few years, the surrounding small environment, microclimate has changed greatly, no special intervention for artificial, barren land quickly become lush, favorable weather. It is very easy for plants to grow and develop. We analyzed that this should be carbon dioxide "gas fertilizer" played an "unexpected" role.

Therefore, we boldly put forward a conclusion: the natural plant carbon sinks potential is enormous, far greater than the human activities generated emissions. Forest vegetation destruction can lead to rapid increase in carbon emissions, and the carbon fixation effect of planting trees and grasses is slow and long-term. The use, impact and recovery of carbon cycles to address carbon emissions is far more effective than reducing fossil fuel consumption, chemical use of carbon dioxide, direct physical storage and storage, and increasing forest vegetation area absorption.

Let's capture the new carbon emissions as much as possible, transported to the sea, forests, grasslands, farmland, warm shed, resulting in a substantial increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide, the impact of charcoal respiration, carbon cycling process, so that the role of plant carbon sequestration multiplied, but also promote the rapid growth of plants, crop production also increased significantly. To achieve low carbon, reduce emissions, increase efficiency and win the situation.

We also need to analyze the historical causes of the large amount of carbon emissions produced by the process of human industrialization. Even today, emissions of carbon dioxide are taken for granted in the industrial sector and in people's daily lives. Environmental assessment of the time, the emissions if there is no special compounds, such as sulfide, nitrogen oxides, dust to achieve clean emissions standards, emissions contain carbon dioxide, water vapor, heat is in fact the local environment of air growth and interference, will also affect local environmental indicators, should also be dealt with.

Every boiler has chimneys, carbon emissions become a habit after burning coal, but a careful analysis of the coal combustion process is a chemical reaction process that produces nearly 4 times the weight of carbon dioxide while releasing the heat of combustion. Emissions of carbon dioxide is actually more valuable than the heat released by the burning process of resources, the current market wholesale price per ton up to 500~800 yuan, Taobao retail price reached 10,000 yuan per ton. The value of chemical products is 2~3 times higher than the energy released, people have long been caught burning heat this "sesame", throwing the burning chemical products This "watermelon." This result also has its historical reasons, backward for decades, the smoke of carbon dioxide can hardly be recycled, recycled, and there is no much use, people did not reduce the environmental pressure of carbon emissions. But today is completely different, the technology of recycling flue gas carbon dioxide is ripe, the cost of recycling is low, recycled carbon dioxide is widely used. It has also been recognized that carbon emissions are harmful to the environment, and that the time has come to deal with carbon emissions thoroughly and to address the issue of carbon emissions as a fundamental solution to carbon emissions.

Let us make another suggestion for the widespread use of coal, the fuel and gas process is reformed so that every boiler, every combustion device, works like a chemical plant's reaction equipment, using both the heat released by the combustion reaction and the chemical products produced by the chemical reaction to "eat up the value of the fossil", While reducing the environmental pollutant emission, realize the substantial increase of the benefit, realize the organic unification of Low-carbon, emission reduction and efficiency.

We also remind that for those who build chemical companies that are far away from the city, a large number of carbon-emitting enterprises, perhaps not necessary for carbon capture, as long as the surrounding small environment to strengthen plant cultivation, I believe that soon as the chemical enterprises mentioned above, through the "production and production of carbon emissions", on the spot to achieve low-cost, efficient, Environmentally friendly carbon fixation. Carbon-emitting enterprises and carbon-emitting equipment, which do not have a large amount of vegetation around to achieve carbon sequestration, should strengthen carbon capture, carbon recovery, through urban capture, space transfer of field emissions, winter traps, time shifts in summer emissions, with the photosynthesis of green plants, achieve carbon fixation efficiently, and achieve direct and Indirect creation of new economic benefits.

At present, the industrial field of carbon emissions are relatively easy to capture, trapping many methods, each one ton of carbon dioxide to capture the cost of about 100 yuan or lower. But in recent years, there is little breakthrough in the resource utilization of carbon emission, the reason is that the theory of theory is obsolete, the concept innovation and theoretical innovation need to be carried out in order to completely change the present situation of the utilization of carbon emission resources. This paper will start with dry ice as a kind of power conversion medium, and discuss the innovation of the utilization of carbon emission resources.

Over the years, countless scientists have tried to turn carbon dioxide back into some kind of "fuel." Almost all of these people are in the chemical reverse reaction of the fuss. But such a process, all is the need for energy, to achieve combustion reverse reaction is also very difficult, and in addition to consider the use of solar energy, simulation of plant photosynthesis, even if the reverse reaction, can only be a high grade energy storage can be released, the loss of the candle.

In recent years, we have made a further understanding of the working principle of the heat engine and put forward the idea of "let the engine cool down". The nature of the heat engine is caused by thermal expansion of the medium, work, heating is the means, the expansion of pressurization is the purpose. People should not be the Heat engine working temperature section rigid, fixed in from room temperature to high temperature, and from low temperature to room temperature will also cause a certain medium temperature, expansion, push the piston, turbine blade movement work, will be room temperature, low temperature of the same energy into mechanical energy.

Carbon dioxide is a very magical substance, at atmospheric pressure, it can be -78.5℃ ultra-low temperature, solid form of "dry ice" exists, to about 10 atmospheric pressure environment, carbon dioxide will become liquid flow easy to transport. Dry ice as a working medium, you can absorb the use of environmental medium air, water heat gasification, if limited to a closed container, you can get dozens of atmospheric pressure at ambient temperature carbon dioxide gas. This high-pressure, ambient carbon dioxide gas can completely promote the pneumatic machinery output power work. Since the principle of the heat engine has not changed, the engine also needs no big changes, only need to improve the existing car, you can make the original consumption of fuel, working in the High-temperature temperature section of the engines, instead of using ultra-low temperature working quality, pry dynamic environmental heat participation, so that the cylinder produces the same size expansion pressure to promote the piston, Let the engine continue to work at ambient temperature.

Before the transformation, the car was carrying an energy substance, inhaled without the need to pay the ambient air, heat released after the combustion to allow the reaction of the mixed gas heating up, expansion, high pressure and high temperature gas expansion potential in the engine into kinetic energy, driving the vehicle movement, the work after the waste heat of the high temperature exhaust gas is discharged into the environment; The car is with ultra-low temperature working medium dry ice, through the heat exchanger, absorption does not need to pay the temperature of the air heat, vaporization, gasification, heating up expansion, and finally high-pressure carbon dioxide gas at ambient temperature to promote the operation of the engine, driving the vehicle movement, the expansion of the release of the internal energy after the This process has been validated in the experiment. Preliminary estimates, let the engine output the same power consumption of the "working medium" volume is the original fuel consumption of 5~8 times, and the overall cost is nearly one-third of the use of fuel, the equivalent of a return to the steam engine era, the difference is that the refrigerant from water into dry ice, the source of heat is not dependent on coal It is taken from ambient air or water.

The modified experiment also noted that dry ice first gasification process, in fact, is a endothermic process, that is, a cooling process, is a very good "cold source", can provide power at the same time, for refrigeration, refrigeration transport equipment to provide a large amount of cold, for freezing seawater desalination equipment to provide high-quality cold source. After doing work, the gas temperature decreases again as the internal energy decreases, and reaches -50℃ or lower, and can be used as cold source output cooling again.

For the transformation of agricultural machinery, in the provision of power at the same time, dry ice gasification after the carbon dioxide has become a crop of gas fertilizer, reducing the cost of agricultural machinery, reduce the consumption of petrochemical fuel, back to crops, farmland with gas fertilizer, one count.

When using fuel to burn heat in winter, a new type of boiler that can reclaim dry ice is used to reclaim carbon dioxide from the flue gas, and the process of making dry ice also achieves high efficiency and maximum recovery and reuse of fuel combustion heat. No plants in winter, should be stored in dry ice; in the summer, the use of dry ice endothermic refrigeration, gasification of high-pressure carbon dioxide gas to promote the steam turbine output power generation, the ultimate emission of low-pressure carbon dioxide gas into the summer plant gas fertilizer, the realization of carbon resources across time, the efficient use of space, comprehensive utilization.

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