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留学生作业代写:Talk about nationalism

2017-09-28 来源: 51due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- Talk about nationalism,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了民族主义。民族主义如同自由主义一样,强调的是民族至上,共同体高于一切。为了共同体的利益,个人可以也应该承担责任,甚至牺牲。因此,以民族为基点的民族主义,必然强调本民族的利益,立足于直接的利益和具体的象征,也就没有完整严密的理论,容易被民众接受,因而具有极强的动员力和煽动力。

nationalism,民族主义,assignment代写,paper代写,留学生作业代写

The nation is not only a political unit, but also a social, economic and cultural community. Like liberalism, where freedom is the highest principle, nationalism emphasizes the supremacy of the nation, the community above everything else, and the individual who is regarded as the subject of liberalism is considered insignificant, and for the benefit of the community, the individual can and should be held accountable and even sacrificed. Therefore, the nationalism based on the national basis must emphasize the interests of the nation, based on the direct interests and concrete symbols, there is no complete and rigorous theory, easy to be accepted by the public, and thus has a strong mobilization and incitement force.

"We cannot accept a world without ethnicity or nationalism," said Anthony, a British national historian. "It shows the unique status of nationalism in the history of human development." He defines nationalism as an ideological movement aimed at seeking and maintaining autonomy and individuality for a social group, some of whom expect nationalism to form a de facto or potential nation. He defined national autonomy, national unity and national identity as the goal of democracy for the benefit of the nation. Nationalism is not only a kind of ideology, but also a kind of social movement and symbolic language.

Like liberalism, nationalism has undergone a long process since it was conceived and germinated in Western Europe in the $number century, and it has experienced a great influence on the evolution of contemporary international political situation.

All kinds of nationalism, from the current political content, both require national independence of nationalism, such as the United States War of Independence, the Algerian national liberation wars, and the implementation of national slavery nationalism, and even national unity and separation can be classified into the category of nationalism. In terms of scope, there are national and national or Cross-border, as well as at the international level. In addition, there is a narrow nationalism, a pan-nationalism, and radical, extreme and conservative, moderate nationalism.

In fact, like liberalism, as a political trend of thought, whether it is the view or influence, nationalism can not be separated from the political, economic and cultural level. Therefore, I want to start from the point of view related to national characteristics, the political, economic, cultural three forms of expression to specify the nationalism.

Political nationalism is a category that encompasses an unusually large content. In many cases it seems that theorists have been held under the "nationalism" hat in regard to the different propositions of the nation, or even the tendency to be completely antagonistic. For example, advocating the expansion of aggression, and even the massacre of other people's claims, will be called "nationalism", on the contrary, against the oppression of aggression, defending national independence of the proposition, will also be called "nationalism." It is still called nationalism to advocate strict national boundaries, even to define national attribution by descent or political boundary, so as to achieve the goal of "purifying" the nation.

In fact, from the political perspective, nationalism has its inherent characteristics. Political nationalism is concerned with sovereignty and territory, always associated with the state, to establish a nation-state for the purpose. It transcends the narrow kinship, and ties the national issue closely to the issue of political state, in the form of democratic unification, ethnic division, National liberation, national independence and national fission. As long as the country exists, political nationalism must exist and play an important role. I think it is not surprising that, in this way, ethnic separatism is regarded as a banner for the establishment of a single nation-state, and that pan-nationalism, in its rhetoric, calls for the establishment of a cross-border nation-state. Therefore, when it comes to national politics and interests, nationalism is inevitably characterized by strong exclusivity and emotional overtones, and even a tendency of violent conflict. "The History of international relations in the 19th century and 20th century was mainly made up of the struggle for the creation and consolidation of the nation-state, and nationalism-inspired national proliferation was often achieved through war and sowed the seeds of violent conflict thereafter." "As Giddens said," The arrival of the nation's ―― nation may not only lead to a combination of nationalist radicalism and existing national boundaries, but may also stimulate ambiguity and antagonistic nationalism. "And the two sides of nationalism: on the one hand, it causes a very strong national aggression, on the other hand, it also causes good democratic ideals." "And facts have proved that during the centuries of nationalism, it has contributed to the prosperity and stability of the nation-state and brought trouble to the political life." Especially at the international level, as a tool for the expansion of Western nationalities and the implementation of colonialism, political nationalism has a great influence on the world historical pattern. The hegemony and localism, called Super Nationalism, are the main manifestations of Western nationalism at the international level for 400 of years.

Economic life is the basis of national existence, ethnic conflicts and conflicts, even the world or local war, its substance is in the scramble for economic interests. "From a deep perspective, nationalism can be said to be basically economic nationalism." Its international performance is economic independence and trade disputes. For example, mercantilism, colonialism, protectionism and trade liberalism in Western modern history are the typical forms of economic nationalism. The starting point of economic nationalism is the relative benefit of the nation-state in the world economic system rather than the absolute benefit of the whole world, and it is deeply concerned about the status of the nation-state in the world political economic system, especially the long-term development trend of the nation determined by the national economic competitiveness, rather than the coexistence and Therefore, in the contemporary international economic life, the developed countries often have two kinds of means to protect their own interests and to deal with the developing countries. Morgenthau, the founder of international Relations Theory and the political science of Rights, believes that contemporary ethnic nationalism is a national-world doctrine, not a supreme goal of establishing a nation-state, but a right to impose its own values and codes of conduct on other peoples.

An interesting phenomenon is that the United States, the United Kingdom and other developed countries in history are the most staunch advocates of economic nationalism, and in the irreversible economic globalization today, they are strongly advocating the opposite of economic globalism. My understanding of this phenomenon is that economic integration is not, as many people have advocated, a solution to the problems of the world's ethnic economy. On the contrary, in today's increasingly fierce economic competition, perhaps economic nationalism can promote the development of weaker countries. Even Britain and the United States and other countries, while advocating the global doctrine, in fact, always in the national interest as the core of its economic policy. As Greenfield in the spirit of capitalism, nationalism is the spiritual source of capitalism. And China did not catch up with this source, the preparation is not in place. Therefore, economic nationalism is almost the inevitable choice for a country to stand on the forest of world power, especially for big countries such as China. We cannot blindly follow the so-called global integration, it must be recognized that the dependence on foreign direct investment and foreign technology, "global doctrine", its economic development is bound to be full of uncertainty, relying on national enterprises and independent knowledge of the "nationalist" country, its development be stability.

Gerner says nationalism is a way for people to fight for equal treatment when culture dominates their destiny. Culture is the basis of national and national identity, but also the most important "social capital" to support the economic development of national countries, there is no unified nation and country without a unified culture. Conversely, it is difficult to have a complete culture without an independent country. If the boundaries of the nation-state will change with the international political pattern, the national culture has its own relatively stable track. Therefore, cultural nationalism is in fact a high-level form of nationalism. John hutchinson suggests that political nationalism, which concerns the state and promotes independence, is usually supplemented by cultural nationalism, and that the goal of cultural nationalism is very different from the former, and that it is to regenerate the ethical community of the nation on its own land. Cultural nationalism is mainly concerned with cultural identity, social harmony and moral community, which are before or independent of political action and expression. In practice, the cultural and political forms of nationalism are often inherited, and nationalists may swing between them. When political nationalism is hesitant in its goal, cultural nationalism may serve as a temporary agent to develop the collective cultural resources of the community; when the vitality of culture is diminished, the new nationalist political movement will emerge. Harkinson points out the important role of cultural nationalism in the national community and its relationship with political nationalism.

Nowadays, with the Cold War pattern, the digestion of the Cold War thinking mode and the perplexity and anxiety of the national cultural identity caused by the globalization tide, nationalism has increasingly become the ideological weapon and spiritual homeland for all the nations of the world to resist and confront the economic and even cultural globalization. Therefore, although nationalism is a derogatory part of speech in many situations, the beneficial side of the double-edged sword is not to be overlooked. After all, it has become a global ideology and political trend of thought, sound still sound.

To sum up, both liberalism and nationalism are for freedom, but not in the same way as in form. Liberalism directly out of the slogan of freedom, from the initial individual freedom, gradually rising to the national, national, political, economic level, the connotation of expanding. While nationalism is the banner of the nation, however, it pursues the interests or goals of the nation and the state, and at some level, it can be regarded as a kind of "freedom", but this freedom is not liberate, but freedom, in some respects, it will be accompanied by the meaning of power and infringement. As some scholars have pointed out, "the West with the ' individual rights ' as the core of liberalism, with ethnic groups as the core of nationalism, in the position of conflicting." But in practice, liberalism has always been unable to get rid of nationalism, so the dominant liberalism always tries to achieve the combination of the two by tolerating nationalism, showing a tendency to eliminate nationalism with liberalism.”

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