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美国作业代写:On the criticism of natural aesthetics

2017-09-02 来源: 51due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- On the criticism of natural aesthetics,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了自然审美批评论。传统自然审美有欣赏而无批评,存在自然审美批评空缺,因而并非一种独立、自觉的审美形态。自然审美批评的核心任务乃解决自然审美客观性立场、自然美内涵与自然审美方法三个基本问题。将自然当自然对待,而非借自然表达人类自身之主观人文趣味与价值,集中感知、理解与体验自然对象本身所有,乃客观性立场之本旨和自然审美独立、自觉之基本前提。

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Traditional natural aesthetic appreciation without criticism, the existence of natural aesthetic criticism vacancy, and therefore is not an independent, consciously aesthetic form. The contemporary natural aesthetics is to develop a kind of natural aesthetic criticism, which is based on the aesthetic appreciation of nature, and constructs a set of natural aesthetic criticism discourse system, which is the basic work of developing this natural aesthetic criticism. The core task of natural aesthetic criticism is to solve the three basic problems of the objectivity standpoint of natural aesthetics, the connotation of natural beauty and nature aesthetic method. To treat nature as natural, rather than to express human's own subjective and humanistic interest and value by nature, to focus on perceiving, understanding and experiencing the natural object itself, is the basic premise of objective and natural aesthetic independence and self-consciousness. The basic connotation of physical, physical, material and material snat natural aesthetic appreciation, and the view, nonconforming and body are the basic methods of natural aesthetic appreciation. The function of natural aesthetic criticism is to guide the natural aesthetic appreciation of the Society and promote the contemporary natural aesthetic consciousness. The natural aesthetic criticism is the direct criticism to the social populace's present natural esthetic appreciation activity, its basic method has the case annotation type, the phenomenon summary type and the philosophic analytic formula. The case review is the aesthetic criticism of the critic based on the individual natural aesthetic experience, and the summary of the phenomenon is the aesthetic criticism made by the critic to the group natural aesthetic events; the philosophical analysis is the critic's conceptual analysis and generalization of the perceptual natural aesthetic experience. These three are the basic forms of natural aesthetic criticism. Ecological criticism, based on environmental problems and ecological concepts, and the interpretation of relevant literature and text, is the indirect form of natural aesthetic criticism, the necessary supplement of the first three.

Criticism, as a kind of behavior distinguished from aesthetic perception or appreciation, is a kind of rational activity, an organization of terms, propositions and arguments. In any case, the nature of this activity depends to a large extent on the operational factors that make up the activity, as it also relies on the objects it targets, or the spirit of its authors, as well as the environmental characteristics.

As the concept of daily life, criticism is widely used in human social life objects, behavior and context, such as clothing, diet and character evaluation. However, as a poetic concept, "criticism" generally refers to the evaluation of art works and performance behavior, that is, "art criticism".

Critics, comments, judgments and evaluations, including daily life criticism and artistic criticism, the phenomenon of criticism of certain objects and behaviors in human realistic activities is the important information of the awakening of human rational consciousness. However, the whole consciousness of human activities in any field should go to specialization and refinement, In turn it seems to be premised on the emergence of criticism. No matter which kind of activity, when the sporadic opinion comment and the judgment transforms into the systematic judgment and the appraisal, the criticism then from the real activity's parasitic factor transforms to has the transcendental independent behavior, becomes one specialized, the professional idea activity. Of course, the ultimate value of professional criticism in any field is reflected in its evaluation of the object and activity of the evaluation of the feedback ―― its assessment of the object of criticism, the optimization and promotion of activities.

In the classical times, both East and West have a parallel history of artistic creation, appreciation and artistic criticism, which mutually depend on each other to promote the healthy development of human art aesthetics. More importantly, the artistic criticism has an important positive influence on the high consciousness and refinement of the aesthetic of the East and West Art. However, it is surprising that, in contrast to this situation, there is no parallel between the ―― aesthetic appreciation and aesthetic criticism in the eastern and Western classical natural aesthetic tradition, but only natural aesthetic appreciation, the corresponding natural aesthetic criticism has not been established. The natural aesthetic history of the East and the West is the only appreciation and no criticism. Your, there is a huge gap between the natural aesthetic criticism of the East and the west.

If it's any real activity for human beings, criticism is the symbol of rationality, artistic criticism has contributed to the high consciousness of the aesthetic of classical art, the two-way interaction of art creation, appreciation and art criticism is the ideal pattern of human art aesthetic, so what does the situation of appreciating and not criticizing of the eastern and Western classical natural aesthetics mean? It means that the traditional natural aesthetic consciousness is not perfect, the perceptual leading and rational lack; it means that, on the whole, the east-west traditional natural aesthetic has not realized the true consciousness. If there are rational judgments in the field of artistic aesthetics: how to appreciate the art is correct, how to appreciate the art is not perfect, in the meantime has established aesthetic appreciation of the appropriate value standards and technical system, then compared with it, about natural aesthetics seems to have been a situation. If the aesthetic appreciation of the arts, professional appreciation and amateur appreciation, superficial appreciation and depth of appreciation is necessary, then in the natural aesthetic appreciate here, a how the anarchy, the state of naturalism is reasonable? Why does the aesthetic appreciation of human beings at both ends of the natural aesthetic and artistic appreciation be so divided and two yuan antagonistic? As long as human beings in the natural aesthetic appreciation has not yet established a clear right and wrong value standards, as long as human beings in the natural aesthetic appreciation has not yet refined a set of precise, delicate and profound to reveal the natural aesthetic connotation of the technical system, then no matter how people in daily life, poetry and art in the warm display of their aesthetic enthusiasm for nature, No matter the ode to nature and how voluminous the poem painting is, it is not enough to show that the natural aesthetic consciousness of mankind has been consciously and maturely. Compared with the aesthetic tradition of art, the natural aesthetic consciousness of human is still very simple, careless and superficial. How does the contemporary natural aesthetic experience materially transcend the classical natural aesthetic tradition? What is the unique academic mission of contemporary natural aesthetics? To carry on the historic remedial lessons, the positive introduction about the natural esthetic appreciation connotation and the method correct standard the critical link, initially establishes the natural esthetic criticism the discourse system, is the urgent matter.

On the basis of consciously reconsidering the Western natural aesthetic tradition, Allen Carlson, the contemporary western environmental aesthetics, systematically sums up the basic error types in the Western natural aesthetic tradition, puts forward the appropriateness of the natural aesthetics, and puts forward the preliminary opinions on what to appreciate in nature appreciation and how to appreciate it. This is an important achievement of contemporary natural aesthetics and environmental aesthetics, which deserves serious attention in the academic circles. However, the key words of contemporary Western natural aesthetics and environmental aesthetics are still "natural aesthetic appreciation". Although scholars have published many constructive opinions on how to appreciate nature, they have not put forward the problems of developing natural aesthetic criticism and establishing the discourse system of natural aesthetic criticism. The author thinks that it is not enough to appreciate the beauty of nature only from the angle of aesthetics theory to discuss what is right or proper natural aesthetic appreciation. A basic work of contemporary natural aesthetics, it is to expand the practice of natural aesthetic criticism on the metaphysical level and build up a concise and effective natural aesthetic criticism discourse system, so that the natural aesthetic appreciation of the public is no longer just a simple emotional expression of human nature love, but a situation like art appreciation, It has become a conscious aesthetic activity with clear value goal, aesthetic intension and method leading to realize the whole consciousness of contemporary natural aesthetic appreciation.

At the same time, the evaluation of natural aesthetic experience can not satisfy the subjective and sporadic personal aesthetic preference expression, but should be developed into a professional, can be shared serious activities, as the art criticism has been done. The realistic description is that the scientific and rational discourse system of natural aesthetic criticism is the result of the long-term accumulation of simple natural aesthetic experience; The ideal description is that the only first to establish a set of operational natural aesthetic criticism discourse system in the academic research level, and then to promote this set of discourse system in the realistic natural aesthetic criticism, Vigorously promote the universality of natural aesthetic criticism, the contemporary nature of the aesthetic will truly realize consciousness. Contemporary natural aesthetics and environmental aesthetics if we want to get rid of the metaphysical state fundamentally, we must consciously introduce the natural aesthetic criticism, so there is a solid realistic and academic foundation, as the developed art criticism is the essential foundation of the art philosophy. The ideal natural aesthetics and environmental aesthetics should be based on the realistic basis of natural aesthetics and natural criticism, rather than purely philosophical analysis and research. When natural aesthetics and environmental aesthetics are satisfied with Shing, the critics of traditional art from the field of literary criticism have ventured across the boundary, and according to the relevant information in the literary texts, they have developed ecocriticism, engaging in the work that should be first tried by natural aesthetics and environmental aesthetics. However, the ecological criticism carried out by literary critics is different from that of natural aesthetic and environmental aesthetics.

The contemporary Western "ecological criticism" focuses on the relationship between literature and environment, which is a breakthrough in the view of pure art literature, focusing on the realistic environmental problems based on literary vision, or discussing literature based on realistic environmental problems. However, from the aesthetic point of view, this is the traditional art theory of the field of vision. On the one hand, the concept of environment not only exists in literature, but generally exists in all fields of art, so ecological criticism cannot be just a kind of environmental criticism with literature as material, but as a kind of environmental criticism in the fields of art. In terms of its attribution to ―― environmental issues, ecological criticism is called "environmental criticism", at least when it is about art rather than just literary environmental criticism. On the other hand, aesthetic phenomena exist not only in art, but also in the field of non art, such as natural aesthetics, process aesthetics and life aesthetics. Therefore, if the ecological criticism takes aesthetics as the view, it is a kind of environmental criticism about aesthetics, so ecological criticism needs to be enlarged. However, as a natural science, especially a branch of practical technology, "environmental criticism" is a natural environment for the entity, with ecological health as its purpose, on the status of nature, environmental improvement technology and environmental protection policy utility status of technical criticism, fresh and humanistic value concept At present, as an ecological criticism in the field of literary criticism, it mainly revolves around the environmental concepts in literary texts. We can say that there are actually two kinds of environmental criticisms: "Technical environmental criticism", taking natural environment as entity, solving realistic environmental problems from natural and social path; second, "Conceptual environmental criticism", with the reflection on the humanistic value of the environment as an entity, to improve the environmental problems through the transformation of humanistic concept. The existing ecological criticism is clearly part of the latter. 1

The ecological criticism of the contemporary West is the expansion of the literary critic from the traditional literary criticism to the environmental criticism, it seems to be natural, but it greatly obscures the basic problem. They do not realize that: to be fruitful, ecological criticism needs to lay the groundwork for the necessary academic and social culture in terms of natural aesthetic concepts and methods, instead of directly jumping into the ecological problems. To solve the concept first, and then solve the technology, which is the basic idea of the concept of environmental criticism. From the aesthetic point of view, the contemporary environmental problems, first of all because people in the natural aesthetic concept of problems, therefore, the radical solution is to reconstruct the natural aesthetic concept, expand the natural aesthetic criticism. So, the basic remedial work we need to do now is first of all, establishing the basic system of aesthetic criticism in the natural aesthetic link, constructing the discourse system of natural aesthetic criticism, answering the question of what kind of natural aesthetics is proper, and how to appreciate the natural problem from two aspects of axiology and methodology. Therefore, the contemporary ecological criticism needs to learn from the natural beauty angle, and solve the problem of nature aesthetic values and methodology from the source. Without such a deep theoretical consciousness, if there is no such basic work, only to stay in the environmental science from some concepts to discuss the concept of environmental values in literature and art, it is not enough to effectively improve the natural aesthetic taste and methods of the public, ecological criticism is difficult to realize its environmental problems of the real concern, The construction of contemporary ecological civilization also lacks the necessary social and cultural Foundation. In this sense, ecological criticism needs to deepen itself, from the "external criticism" on the environment to the "intrinsic criticism" of aesthetic concepts and methods, to fundamentally solve the problems of natural aesthetic values and natural aesthetic methodology in the meaning of natural beauty, and turn ecological criticism into natural aesthetic criticism.

Experience shows that natural aesthetic criticism exists in the activities of natural aesthetic appreciation. Aesthetic perception is a kind of aesthetic judgment, a kind of aesthetic appreciation without aesthetic value judgment is inconceivable. In natural aesthetic appreciation, there exist at least perceptual judgments about the beauty and ugliness of certain natural objects, that is, only from the physiological perceptual level of physiological sensory pleasure or not, to make positive or negative judgement on the appreciation of natural objects. In this sense, the evaluation of the aesthetic value of natural objects is a kind of aesthetic intuition, which is a kind of simple behavior of the natural appreciation aesthetic senses to exert their physiological function. Then, the natural aesthetic practice of the public, there is a rational sense of aesthetic value judgment, that is, the controversial aesthetic judgment, when people to the same natural object of different aesthetic value judgments, people tend to give reasons to support their own judgments. However, in general, the aesthetic judgment occurring in the daily natural aesthetic appreciation practice of the society is more of a subjective, sporadic and private opinion expressing about the aesthetic value of a particular natural object. In academic circles, people usually take the criticism as a kind of conscious and rational professional behavior, and the physiological sense of intuitive aesthetic reaction is excluded, and the sporadic and private opinions expressed by ordinary people in the process of natural aesthetic appreciation are neglected. Historically, as a whole, the nature of the professional, systematic aesthetic criticism should be the national natural aesthetic experience accumulated to a certain extent, after the transcendence of the concept of activities, so when it arises from the natural aesthetic appreciation activities; However, the ideal speech, consciously, high-quality natural aesthetic appreciation, real need natural aesthetic expert ―― With a considerable field of knowledge and experience of the guidance of the critics, so the ideal of natural aesthetic appreciation is to consciously, mature natural aesthetic criticism as the premise, like serious, perfect art appreciation needs to be guided by professional art criticism.

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