2017-01-09 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: 更多范文
Introduction The report concerns that distinguish between ‘personnel management’ and ‘human resource management’ and discuss the historical development and changing context in which they operate.
1.Distinguish between ‘personnel management’ (PM)and ‘human resource management’(HRM).
1.1The definition of ‘PM’ Personnel management is that Administrative discipline of hiring and developing employees so that they become more valuable to the organization. It includes -conducting job analyses, planning personnel needs, and recruitment, selecting the right people for the job, orienting and training, determining and managing wages and salaries, providing benefits and incentives, appraising performance, resolving disputes, and communicating with all employees at all levels.
1.2 The definition of ‘HRM’ An organization is the effective management of people and use of thought and behavior. Is found, input power "exploitation" and utilization of human, it include obtain employment and employment, and human configuration, motivation, education training four aspects of content. Its connotation is through certain means, arouse the enthusiasm of the people, and give full play to the human creativity, the human resources by potential into wealth. It went far beyond the traditional personnel management category, is one of the management of new and important areas.
1.3 Distinguish between personnel management and human resource management. Personal management Human resource management Time planning Margina,adhoc,short-term,reactive Integrated,strategic,long-term,proactive Psychology Compliance Commitment control external controls Self-control Employment relationship Pluralist (collection),low trust Unitarist (individual),high trust Structure Bureaucratic, centralized, formal defined roles Organic, devolved, flexible roles Roles Specialist and professional Largely integrated into line management Evaluation criteria Cost minimization Maximum utilization HRM is more proactive than PM. PM is about the maintenance of personnel and admin systems; HRM is about the forecasting of organization needs, the continual monitoring and adjustment of personnel systems to meet current and future requirement, and admin changes.
PM is workforce-centered, direct mainly at the organization’s employees; such as finding and training them, arranging for them to be paid, explaining management’s expectations, justifying management’s actions and so on. Nevertheless, HRM is resource-centered, directed mainly at management, in terms of devolving the responsibility of HRM to line management and administrative development and so on. Although indisputably and administrative function, PM has never totally identified with management interests, as it becomes ineffective when not able to understand and articulate the aspirations and views of the workforce, just as sales representatives have to understand and articulate the aspirations of the customers.PM is basically an operational function, concerned primarily with carrying out the day-to-day people management activities. HRM is strategic in nature, which is being concerned with directly assisting an organization to gain sustained competitive advantages.
The PM is an admin record-keeping function, at the operational level. PM attempts to maintain fair terms and conditions of employment, while at the same time, efficiently managing personnel activities for individual departments. It is assumed that the outcomes from providing justice and achieving efficiency in the management of personnel activities will result ultimately in achieving organizational success. The HRM is concerned with carrying out the same functional activities traditionally performed by the personnel function, such as HR planning, job analysis, recruitment and selection, employee relations, performance management, employee appraisal, compensation management, training and development.
2. The historical development of ‘PM’ and ‘HRM’
2.1 Social justice In the 19th century, Taylor developed a book named Scientific Management Principles. After that, people were based on this book to expand the personnel management. In 1833, because of the industrial revolution, the labor of productivity need to improve, then the factory inspectors started to inspect the work environment. In 1878, the legalization was agreed with the personnel management to reduce the work hours. The more conspicuous welfare initiatives promoted by employers today include employee assistance schemes, childcare facilities and healthy-screening programmes.
2.2 Humane bureaucracy In the early 20th century, because of the World War, the people of China become fewer and fewer, the government was required using the human resources and the arm fields must have welfare workers. In 1916, employed people must check the IQ, ability. Therefore, they can make full use of the employees. It based on the F.W.Taylor theory, the employees needed to be staffed, trained, organization design management and admin. It can help the company get more profits, and make the employee get more incomes. Scientific Management Principles also writes motivating staffs are very important. Managers does not consider the feelings of the employees, they will be demotivated. Elton Mayo said“Social relationships in the workplace and employee morale are equally important to raise productivity”
2.3 Negotiated consent In the World WarⅡ, personal specialists managed the new collective institutions such as joint consultation committees, joint production committees and suggestion schemes set up in order to accommodate the new realities. As people scared by, the power of the trade union become more stronger and they advised to negotiate with the joint consultation committee, in 1940s, the joint consultation committee must be negotiated with the trade union. In the meantime, to help achieve this, the government opened the professional courses to train the profession person in the universities.
2.4 Organization In the late 1960s, PM’s focus on dealing with the employees on behalf of management switched towards dealing with management itself and the integration of managerial activity. This phase was characterized by the development of career paths and of opportunities within organizations for personal growth. Personal specialists developed techniques of manpower or workforce planning. This is basically a quantitative activity, boosted by the advent of information technology, which involves forecasting the likely need for employees with different skills in the future.
2.5 Human resource management (HRM) In the 1950s, the ‘HRM’ first used by Peter Ducker and others in North America, this term is no any special meaning, just another label for PM. In the 1980s, the human resource management held to serve the modern business more effectively than traditional personnel management. The focus point on people, in other words, the HRM become people oriented. HRM focus on demand rather than supply and it greater emphasis on planning, monitoring and control, rather than mediation. Human resources management theory are much stressed management activities, think this management activity is based on the enterprise each individual are valuable resources on the basis of this one, but it must also be to comprehensive management. Legge (1989 and 1995) thinks there is very little difference between the two, but there are some differences that are important – HRM concentrates more on what is done to managers than on what is done by managers to other employees. There is a more proactive role for line managers.
There is a top management responsibility for managing culture. Conclusion：In this report, I have explained some basic information about the human resource management and personnel management. It includes three parts: the basic information of them. The historical development of ‘PM’ and ‘HRM. Distinguish between ‘personnel management’ (PM) and ‘human resource management’ (HRM) I have used pictures to explained these things for you.