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The legal system for school safety in the United States

2019-02-11 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- The legal system for school safety in the United States,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国学校的安全法律制度。在美国,虽然教育属于各州独自的事务,但为了保障学校安全,美国联邦制定了众多相关法律,采取各种措施促进学校安全。美国联邦教育法典有专门针对学校安全的内容,此外由于学校安全属于公共安全事务,有关公共安全领域的应急管理等法律法规也适用于学校安全。

school safety,美国学校的安全法律制度,essay代写,作业代写,代写

In the United States, school safety is part of public safety. School safety means providing a good learning environment for students and a good working environment for staff. School safety in the United States is actually a big concept of safety. School safety refers to the security perceived and experienced by stakeholders of school environment and school activities. From the perspective of content, school safety includes emotional and personal safety. From the object, school safety includes students, staff and school safety. In addition, network security, environmental protection security also belong to the school security category. The U.S. code of education sets limits on cybersecurity and asbestos products in schools. The school safety is extensive, the influence factor is different, the school safety management and the guard are also different, this requests to pass the legislation to try to coordinate.

Factors that affect school safety include natural disasters, everyday accidents, fires and dangerous behavior. The United States already has a mature system for natural disasters and accident hazards that affect school safety. Areas prone to hurricanes, tornadoes, floods and earthquakes have been defined, and state regulations, building and fire codes, and emergency protection procedures have been developed over the years to essentially eliminate or mitigate fire and accident risks. The biggest problem with school safety in the United States is man-made disasters, especially extreme forms of violence. The likelihood and risk of school shootings are low, but they are still there. In addition, although the basic no terrorist attacks on schools, but have been reported in other countries, and near the world trade center in New York schools affected by the "911 incident", therefore, the emphasis on school safety nothing from risks, don't cry because it is not possible terrorist attacks is lacking daily accidents, fires, natural disasters and dangerous behavior.

Although education is a state affair, in order to ensure school safety, the United States federal government has enacted many relevant laws and adopted various measures to promote school safety. The federal education code of the United States has specific contents on school safety. In addition, since school safety is a public safety issue, emergency management and other laws and regulations in the field of public safety are also applicable to school safety. The basic framework of school safety legislation in the United States is determined by federal laws. The main measures and systems related to school safety are as follows:

Since the 1990s, in order to solve the problem of school safety, especially school violence, the us federal government has promulgated a series of school safety laws. In the education goals act of 2000, the seventh national education goal is "safe schools", which prohibit the presence of drugs, unauthorized guns and alcohol in schools. Based on this strategic goal, the federal government provides financial and technical support to schools, and each school district can obtain corresponding resource allocation according to the number of students, train school staff and buy school safety equipment.

The clary act established the disclosure of information, which is an important system for American colleges and universities to prevent campus violence. The law, named after student Jenny clary, who was killed in her dorm room in 1986, was originally amended by the higher education act of 1965, the crime awareness and campus safety act of 1990. It has since been amended several times, including by the higher education opportunity act of 2008. The law must be students and the public's right to know about school safety, clear school safety report system and crime statistics report system, regulations, institutions of higher education should be made public policies and procedures related to the campus security, provide data related to the criminal offence, including public and private universities and its overseas branch institutions of higher education has established related to safety and security requirements. To ensure that college communities have easy access to sexual assault registries, the campus sex crimes prevention act requires colleges to provide clear guidance to college communities on where they can obtain information, and clarifies that federal law regulating the privacy of educational records does not prohibit university security agencies from disclosing sexual assault information. The department of education amended the family rights and privacy in education act to prohibit disclosure, allowing educational institutions to disclose information about sexual assault that they have learned from state sexual assault registries and community notification programs.

Based on the attention of the safety of students in 2002, the no child left behind act enacted "unsafe schools select" rules, the provisions of any attended public elementary school or middle school students, if in school or range of school to be victims of violent crime, has the right to within the scope of the local education authority transfer to secure public elementary school or middle school, including public charter schools; Each state must identify and account for "chronically at-risk schools" to protect students' right to information; School districts are required to compile detailed statistics on school safety incidents, such as school violence, and report the results to the public. The law also stipulates that government funds should not be used for infrastructure, medical services other than the treatment of injured students, drug treatment or rehabilitation.

"Against violence school safety" to support to prevent campus and its surrounding violence, alcohol, tobacco and drugs, illegal use of a series of projects for the purpose, with parents, community, and federal, state, school and community agencies of a learning environment for students to create safe and drug-free, provides a series of safety considerations, such as fingerprint security plan, rules of behavior, teachers and whistleblower protection; It also called for the development of a unified system for reporting violence-related incidents and a unified information management system, stressing the need for state educational authorities to develop a system to identify schools that are consistently at risk.

One of the characteristics of school safety in the United States is the campus police system originated from the university student movement in the 1970s, but this system is not uniform in federal legislation. At present the university has the campus police system, the middle and primary school some implements the school police system, some implements the security system. But as school shootings increase, the United States is working on ways to arm school security systems. In the United States, the school security system is also very distinctive, and can even communicate with the police sequence.

The insurance system of the United States is relatively developed on the whole, involving a variety of insurance for students in schools, with a wide range of coverage and a relatively complete insurance system. The insurance of safe respect of concerned school student basically points to student accident to hurt danger and school liability insurance. School liability insurance generally refers to the school to a commercial insurance, the insurance company insured for claims in the teaching activities of the school and outside school learning activities organized by the school, due to the fault of the school and faculty and students suffered a personal injury, the school in accordance with the law shall bear all or part of the economic damages to the students. And student accident insurance basically is used at compensating a school the student person besides tort liability injures an accident, its manage compensate program is simple, need not consider responsibility to maintain, by the school proposal or ask student parent to undertake protecting more. The school liability insurance is aimed at the civil tort liability of the school, while the student accident insurance is more aimed at the accident outside the school's education and teaching activities. School liability insurance and student accident insurance complement each other and complement each other, which together constitute the risk prevention system of school student safety.

The no child left behind act trained teachers in early warning and intervention techniques and trained students in coping with violent crises. The risk awareness of school safety management in the United States is also increasing, and the school emergency plan should be revised to cover as many threats as possible, including natural disasters, terrorist attacks, school violence, public health emergencies and influenza. Emphasize school cooperation with law enforcement agencies, communities and professionals, including law enforcement officials, fire control, public security, public health, psychological health and emergency management, community partners jointly cope with the school security, make crisis plans and take measures to enhance the level of response to all potential risk, namely the emergency management plan should have to handle all dangerous method. In addition, the federal government has some relevant latest legislative developments. In response to the growing number of hate crimes, congress proposed the safe schools initiative act of 2009 and 2010 to ensure that all schools and school districts have comprehensive and effective anti-bullying and anti-harassment policies, particularly regarding gender identity and sexual orientation. The committee on health, education, labor and wages has been referred to the committee through the congressional two-reading process. In 2012, the United States also planned to enact the mental health first aid higher education act. The bill, which focused on mental health, authorized the minister of health and human services to work with the minister of education on a five-year project to fund mental health first training programs in 10 higher education institutions to improve students' mental health.

Based on the division of federal and state power in the constitution, the federal government usually controls the state legislative power through appropriation. The school gun ban act provides for a one-year suspension for students who bring guns to school and a "zero tolerance" policy on weapons. To ensure compliance, the bill requires all states receiving federal education funds to pass the campus improvement act or lose eligibility for federal education funds. As a result, the federal government was able to exercise some control over the state legislative power in school safety. In addition to federal and state laws and regulations, the department of education, the relevant administrative departments and other agencies have also issued a large number of implementation rules and guidelines, as well as the model schemes for crisis management and accident reporting, making the relevant school safety systems and measures highly operable. States tend to build on federal legislation and occasionally innovate. For example, some state laws provide for terrorist threats to school safety and penalties. On the basis of federal and state legislation, local, school district and school make corresponding rules and regulations, which constitute the overall framework of standards, requirements and procedures related to school safety management from the federal level to the state, local, school district and school level. These laws, regulations and rules are implemented through the cooperation of educational administrative organs, relevant government departments, school districts, schools, parents and social forces, which to a large extent guarantee the safety of American schools. It is suggested that we should pay special attention to American school safety information disclosure system and school insurance system.

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