代写范文

留学资讯

写作技巧

论文代写专题

服务承诺

资金托管
原创保证
实力保障
24小时客服
使命必达

51Due提供Essay,Paper,Report,Assignment等学科作业的代写与辅导,同时涵盖Personal Statement,转学申请等留学文书代写。

51Due将让你达成学业目标
51Due将让你达成学业目标
51Due将让你达成学业目标
51Due将让你达成学业目标

私人订制你的未来职场 世界名企,高端行业岗位等 在新的起点上实现更高水平的发展

积累工作经验
多元化文化交流
专业实操技能
建立人际资源圈

American community college management system

2018-11-28 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- American community college management system,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国社区学院的管理体制。美国社区学院外部管理体制可分为州政府管理和大学管理两种模式,二者在经费筹集、人事任免、发展规划以及学院与外部的关系等方面存在明显差异。在内部管理体制上,美国社区学院大多采用董事会领导下的院长负责制,在这一体制基础上,各社区学院根据自身的实际情况采用职能分工式或事业部式管理体制。

management system,美国社区学院管理体制,essay代写,作业代写,代写

The external management system of community colleges in the United States can be divided into two modes: state government management and university management. In terms of internal management system, most American community colleges adopt the dean responsibility system under the leadership of the board of directors. Based on this system, each community college adopts the functional division management system or divisional management system according to its actual situation. In the process of running community colleges, governments at all levels, college boards of directors and local communities play different roles, thus forming different management modes.

After more than 100 years of development, American community college has become a large number of different types of higher education institutions. As of April 2011, there are 1,167 community colleges in the United States, including 993 public community colleges, 143 private community colleges and 31 ethnic colleges. The number of students in community colleges in the United States is about 12 million, accounting for about 50% of the total number of college students in the United States. These community colleges with different sizes, natures and names also have great differences in organizational structure and management mode. There is no unified organizational structure and management mode. Nevertheless, it is still possible to roughly divide the management system of American community colleges from a specific dimension, and this division is conducive to a deeper understanding of the operation mechanism of American community colleges, so as to provide experience for China's development of community colleges.

From the perspective of external management system, community colleges can be divided into community colleges managed by the state government and community colleges managed by the university according to the management subjects of community colleges. In the external management system of community colleges administered by the state government, community colleges are governed by the community college management committee, board of directors or other institutions appointed by the state government. A survey conducted by brock et al. in 1965 found that among the states that unified management of community colleges, six of them were managed by the state department of education, 20 by the state education committee, and six by the state junior college committee.

The community college management committee, board of directors or other state management agencies shall make centralized decisions and management on major matters such as funds and personnel according to the actual situation. But due to differences in management system, different state at the community college management play a real role also vary, such as some community colleges management committee in the budget, personnel appointments and development planning of community college has the effect of strong statute, there is also a part of the state of the management committee of community colleges in ningbo area, only play the role of consultancy and advisory, the impact on the community college is not big. The management system of state-managed community colleges has its unique advantages. For the government, this mode is conducive to the formulation of unified education policies and plans within its jurisdiction and can effectively exert influence on all community colleges. For community colleges, this model can ensure direct communication and contact with the state government and facilitate access to various resources to promote their own development. However, the defects existing in the state-managed community colleges should not be ignored. Firstly, the unified management of community colleges by the state government may lead to the assimilation of community colleges in the region, which is in conflict with the flexible running characteristics and differentiated running goals of community colleges. Secondly, the government directly manages community colleges through relevant institutions, which is not conducive to determining the direction and goal of community colleges according to the actual needs of the region, and is contrary to the basic principles of community colleges serving the local community and emphasizing practicality.

In terms of management system, there is a significant difference between community colleges run by universities and community colleges run by states. The management system of community college of university management is to integrate community college into university system in organizational structure and management mode, and community college becomes an integral part of university. Under this system, the President of a University, authorized by University Boards of Regents, directly leads a community college through a vice President or other executive who is responsible for its work. The dean of a community college is accountable to the university leadership, not the community college board.

The university management system organically integrates community colleges into the whole university system, which is conducive to the establishment of close cooperative relationship between community colleges and universities, especially for the transfer of community colleges. The integration of university and community college is conducive to the realization of resource sharing and complementary advantages between the two institutions, which is obviously more conducive to the development of community college. But at the same time, the management system also has some disadvantages that are difficult to overcome. For example, the community college integrated into the university will face the risk of losing its own advantages and characteristics.

From the perspective of internal management system, although the specific situation of each state in the United States is different, it basically adopts the same mode, that is, the dean responsibility system under the leadership of the board of directors, whose essence is the "two-level management mode", that is, the board of directors is responsible for major decisions, and the dean is responsible for putting them into practice. Specifically, the board of directors of community colleges elected by the community or appointed by the government or relevant institutions have the highest power to make decisions on major issues related to the development of community colleges, such as the selection of deans, development planning and financing. The board of directors authorizes the dean of the community college to manage daily affairs, such as teacher appointment, teaching arrangement, student work and community service. Due to the different scale, cultural traditions and other specific circumstances of different community colleges, their internal organizational forms and management modes are not completely the same. In particular, the scale factor has a great influence on the management mode adopted by community colleges. Small community colleges adopt a relatively simple functional division of labor system. The dean sets up positions such as director of arts and sciences education, director of technology education, director of career education and director of continuing education to manage arts and sciences education, technology education, vocational training and continuing education. Larger community colleges tend to adopt a university-like management system.

The fundamental reason for the diversity of the management system of community colleges in the United States lies in the coordination and division of the responsibilities, rights and interests of all stakeholders. Therefore, further discussion on the management system of community colleges is bound to involve the internal right subjects. The right subjects and their mutual relations constitute the internal and external environment for the development of community colleges. Specifically, the key subjects that constitute the internal and external environment of community colleges include the following aspects:

Under the current political system of the United States, the federal government, the state government and the local government have different powers in the management of different affairs, so the way of management and its influence and role are also different.

According to relevant provisions of the us constitution, education is a matter managed by the states themselves, so the federal government does not directly participate in the management of education affairs of the states. However, the federal government does not have no influence on education of the states. The influence of the federal government on community colleges is mainly realized through legislation, funding and other forms. "Clearly, the role of the federal government has profound implications for the development of community colleges. Specifically, the impact of the federal government on community colleges is realized in four main ways: scientific research funding, tax policies, student aid and authorization. For example, at the end of world war ii, in order to solve the problem of resettlement of a large number of veterans, the us government promulgated the bill of military rights in 1944, which provided financial assistance to soldiers who went to schools at all levels for further education and encouraged education institutions at all levels, including community colleges, to accept veterans. This act greatly promoted the development of American community colleges. In order to promote the development of career education and meet the needs of economic development, in 1963, the federal government promulgated the career education act, which used federal funds to subsidize institutions carrying out career education. At this time, community colleges that had taken career education as their main function also received a large amount of federal funds. Since then, the federal government has issued a series of decrees concerning community colleges, which has played an important role in promoting the development of community colleges. In addition, other decrees issued by The federal government have also influenced community colleges to some extent. For example, The National Endowment for The Humanities has launched several research projects involving community colleges, which has also played a positive role in The development of community colleges. Compared with four-year universities, especially research universities, community colleges have limited access to external funding, among which federal funding is a relatively stable source and approach. Therefore, from this perspective, community colleges are more dependent on the federal government than other higher education institutions.

51due留学教育原创版权郑重声明:原创essay代写范文源自编辑创作,未经官方许可,网站谢绝转载。对于侵权行为,未经同意的情况下,51Due有权追究法律责任。主要业务有essay代写、assignment代写、paper代写、作业代写服务。

51due为留学生提供最好的essay代写服务,亲们可以进入主页了解和获取更多essay代写范文 提供代写服务,详情可以咨询我们的客服QQ:800020041。

上一篇:The end of classical English s 下一篇:The crown and parliament of En