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The crown and parliament of England

2018-11-28 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- The crown and parliament of England,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了英国的王权与议会。君主立宪制是英国独特议会传统的合理继承,是议会与王权关系的新发展,也是新的政治制度资产阶级代议制的起点。纵观英国早期政治现代化历史,王权与议会关系是一条主线,它们建立起密切相联的共存和利用的关系,虽然二者存在矛盾,并且矛盾激化导致战争,以至于在革命高潮中处死专制君主宣布共和,但资产阶级很快谋求与王权妥协,确立君主立宪,并把俸禄和官职这些政治上的战利品留给大地主家庭,这是对议会历史传统的合理继承,是王权与议会关系的发展,也是新的政治制度—资产阶级代议制的起点。

crown and parliament,英国王权与议会,essay代写,作业代写,代写

Since the Norman conquest, the British king has maintained direct power over all the residents and effective control over the local area. The aristocracy is the basis of his rule. To a certain extent, the king and the aristocracy cooperate with each other, but the power struggle between the king and the aristocracy occurs from time to time.

With the development of capitalism and the enhancement of the consciousness of the new bourgeoisie aristocracy to participate in politics, the political enthusiasm of the lower house of parliament was enhanced, and the consciousness of independence was also strengthened. The two sides battled over power. The independence of the house of Commons and the free speech of its members often put the king in a passive position. This shows that at the end of the Tudor dynasty, especially in the Elizabethan period, the house of Commons was not only an instrument of the royal power, but also could take parliament as the center of the struggle to defend its own rights and interests, and put forward political demands, marking the beginning of the struggle between parliament and the royal power.

In the process of mutual cooperation and opposition between parliament and the royal power, the centralized rule of the royal power was strengthened, so that Britain achieved the goal of becoming a unified country. The supreme authority of the king and parliament was established. The king was the supreme authority of the country, but this authority had to be exercised through the privy council and parliament. The relationship between the king and the parliament changed from the previous relationship of master and servant to an equal relationship. The power of parliament was strengthened, and the system that the king and the upper and lower houses of parliament were unified in major national decisions was established, laying a foundation for the decentralization of power in the political system.

After James I ascended the throne, he could not tolerate the growing strength and independence of the bourgeoisie. But James I was long troubled by financial problems and had to call a parliament to approve new taxes. Ignoring the king's tax demands, they focused on the issue of parliamentary privileges and criticized the king's internal and external policies. James I dissolved parliament twice. After Charles I ascended the throne, autocratic rule continued unabated and parliament was dissolved repeatedly. Later, because of the role of the Scottish people's uprising fuse, Charles I was not willing to lose power, led the guard into the house of Commons, the first use of force against parliament. The king's struggle with parliament began by force.

As the conflict between parliament and the crown intensified, civil war broke out. After the outbreak of the civil war, the parliament formed three major factions: the presbyterians, who represented the interests of the big bourgeoisie and the big aristocracy; the independents, who represented the interests of the middle bourgeoisie and the new aristocracy; and the equalists, who represented the interests of the urban and rural petty bourgeoisie.

The sharp political confrontation between parliament and the king led to the establishment of the republic. On May 19, 1649, the British parliament declared the establishment of the English republic in the form of law, which marked the overthrow of the old superstructure and the establishment of the new bourgeois superstructure. However, the establishment of the republic was an unexpected product of the irreconcilable confrontation between the parliament and the king on the issue of the national political system, rather than the purpose of the revolution. Because the purpose of parliament is not to abolish the monarchy, but to control it and institutionalize that control.

The republic was founded as a result of Cromwell's struggle with royalty and other political factions. After the founding of the republic, Cromwell proclaimed himself protector of the country and imposed a military dictatorship. The dominant independents began to stifle the revolution. After Cromwell's death, various forces in Britain were in a state of confrontation. Each class stratum and interest group launched intense struggle around the attribution of royal power. The bourgeoisie and the new aristocracy aspired to establish a strong regime that would check the struggle of the people and protect their vested interests.

Protectorate is a special form of constitutional monarchy established by the bourgeoisie and the new aristocracy under certain historical conditions. However, due to the disappointment of the protectorate regime, all classes and interest groups fought fiercely around the ownership of power. Parliament and the king attempted to find a new compromise by restoring the old dynasty as an attempt to establish a constitutional monarchy. In 1660 Charles ii, who had lived in exile for many years, was called back and the restoration began. Restoration meant not only the restoration of the monarchy, but also the return of parliament. Charles ii restored the constitutional monarchy instead of the Elizabethan throne, and the church could not completely eliminate the potential consciousness of puritanism movement. The royal power was gradually controlled by parliament, and the principle that parliament was higher than the royal power was gradually established. At the time of Charles ii, "the king was forbidden to impose taxes without the approval of parliament or by ingenious means. Since then, all laws and regulations have to pass the majority opinion of parliament legally elected, and any order of the king cannot be resisted or substituted for the laws and regulations".

However, the integration between the king and parliament lasted only a short time, and the king dissolved parliament repeatedly due to conflicts over church affairs, foreign policy and financial issues. The parliament and the king for the king and the Catholic countries friendly exchanges and attempts to restore the Catholic religious policy in the country have sharp contradictions, social classes to Charles ii and James ii's behavior is extremely dissatisfied, the tories and whigs in order to protect the common interests together, secretly plotting a coup. The bourgeoisie and the new aristocracy chose the constitutional monarchy after denying the republican system and the absolute monarchy.

Throughout the early political modernization history, the relationship between crown and parliament is a common thread, they establish a closely linked long-term coexistence, mutual use of the relationship, although the contradiction between them, and the situation led to war, so that the execution despot announced republican in the revolutionary high tide, but the bourgeoisie quickly seek compromise with royalty, established a constitutional monarchy, and leave the salary and positions of these political loot to the big landlord family, this is the reasonable parliamentary tradition inheritance, is the development of the relationship between crown and parliament, is also a new starting point of the political system - the bourgeoisie representative. This shows that the early political modernization process in Britain was a process of tortuous and complicated political struggle, as well as the decline of monarchy and the increase of parliamentary power until the establishment of constitutional monarchy. The establishment of the constitutional monarchy of parliament shows that the British political system has been fundamentally changed, and the transformation from the traditional regime to the modern regime has been realized.

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