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The British liberal party under institutional change

2018-11-21 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- The British liberal party under institutional change,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了制度变迁下的英国自由党。受外源性的制度变迁和内源性的制度变迁的影响,英国自由党的发展历程发生了很大变化。英国自由党是英国第一次工业革命的产物,也是光荣革命后王权让位于议会的产物。英国的第一次工业革命,促进了英国资本主义经济的快速发展,在自由主义的号召下,自由党实现了28年的连续执政,但是第二次工业革命的时候,英国发展缓慢,以自由贸易、自由竞争的自由主义也变为垄断资本主义。这导致英国自由党自由主义的竞选宣言的丧失,加之自由党不但没有进行及时的政策调整,反而还大力提倡“节俭”,这让人们越来越对其失望,后来逐渐衰落。

British liberal party,英国自由党,essay代写,作业代写,代写

Political party is the product of history, and it is a special phenomenon of human social and political activities. Party originally produced in the UK, each political party has its election manifesto and governing idea, the implementation of their good or bad will determine whether they can become the ruling party, this process can be understood as a select few ideas and process of curing them into system, then the problems in the process and interpretation tasks and methods, combined with the evolution of the British liberal development process. What lessons can we learn from the rise and fall of the liberal party and how to use them to develop ourselves, which is why it is worth studying.

The development of a political party has gone through a process of solidification, and then formed the political party's election manifesto and its relevant policies and policies. Then, when a system is formed, whether it can adapt to the development of society becomes a variation process of "survival of the fittest, elimination of the unfittest".

In the west, the term "party" has evolved from the Latin word "pars". It means a part of society, and later it is a kind of social and political organization. In his book the core concepts of politics, British political scientist Andrew Heywood also defined political parties. "political parties are a group of people organized to win government power through elections or other means", and "political parties aim to exercise government power by winning public office".

Britain is the birthplace of political parties, as the two traditional liberal parties are also representative. The liberal party came into being more than 300 years ago. It evolved from the whig party, which in the 1830s became the party representing the interests of the British industrial and commercial bourgeoisie. Victory back in 1906, the liberal party in the election, even during the outbreak of the first world war, but after the first world war, the liberal party differences and so on various aspects contradictions deepening, combined with the senior Labour took advantage of the liberal party differences and developed, the Labour party after more than 20 years of development, the development becomes the new two big parties, while the British liberal party to become a third party, the opposition.

The development of British liberal party has been affected by exogenous institutional change and endogenous institutional change.

The liberal party was the product of Britain's first industrial revolution and the abdication of the crown to parliament after the glorious revolution. Britain's industrial revolution for the first time, promote the rapid development of the British capitalist economy, under the call of the liberalism, the liberal party implements 28 years in power, however, with the development of the second industrial revolution, a new type of capitalist countries, led by the United States, Germany, the rapid development, established the slow development of the capitalist countries Britain, France, with free trade, liberal and free competition to monopoly capitalism. This led to the loss of the liberal manifesto of Britain's liberal party, which, instead of making timely policy changes, became increasingly disillusioned with its advocacy of "thrift". Clearly, anachronistic "liberal" economic policies were one of the external factors that contributed to the decline of Britain's liberal party.

In 1900, Britain established the "Labour committee", the embryonic form of the labor party. By 1906, it was officially renamed the labor party. One of the main reasons for the emergence of the Labour party is that the split of the top leaders of the liberal party has created favorable development and good opportunities for the Labour party. Later, the two parties over the rule-making power produced political conflict, giving rise to power and freedom, therefore, in order to have more political voice in the future or better reflect the will of the ruling party, they must also have competitive power, and will do our best, this is a zero-sum game, the winner in charge, shall have the right to set the rules, even if the rule is not conducive to the interests of the parties failure; And a failed party can only accept any adverse consequences of failure. Some of the better rules have been copied and used to gain better legitimacy as Labour has alternated with the conservatives.

Due to incomplete knowledge, the liberal party cannot adapt to the needs of the development of new economy is an important factor in the rise and fall of the British liberal party, this factor is of produce on specific institutional arrangements of ideas, based on the general theory of system vicissitude, the idea of institutional change is influenced by existing concepts, or to respond to the opportunity of institutional change.

From the perspective of path dependence, once a system chooses a path under the self-enhancement mechanism in the process of social institutional change, it will go on with the chosen path with great strength, and the established direction of such organization and system will probably be strengthened in the subsequent development process. In other words, the initial choice of a system or organization has a strong influence on the track of the change of the system and the direction of the future development of the organization. Once a clear choice is made, the organization and system will become dependent on the choice. In other words, the liberal party why the cause of the development of hundreds of years, it is adapted to liberalism, the economic system, rely on this article has selected the path to the left, but when the inertia continues to a certain stage, it may trigger a negative feedback mechanism, resulting in the system and organization into an infinite loop or locks, in the late 19th century, liberal this path has been locked in some inefficient state, therefore, when it was trapped under the locked state, to get out but will be very difficult, even tend to use external forces, For example, by introducing exogenous variables or relying on the change of regime, the British party system just chose the change of regime, making the regime change and the liberal party gradually withdraw from the stage of history.

In 1886, the liberal party was deeply divided over the issue of Irish autonomy. Chamberlain, who advocated Irish unification, and his followers broke away from the liberal party and joined the conservative party to fight against the liberal party.

Due to the division of the top leadership of the liberal party, the construction of the party itself has problems.

Since the 1970s, the British political party system has entered a new development period. The characteristics of the original typical two-party system began to weaken, and the two-party system began to show a trend of development towards the two-party system. Since entering the 21st century, the liberal party in their various aspects has carried on the reform and construction, the internal system is more and more people, the democratization, policy is becoming more and more cater to the will of the voters, leadership election in 2007, the British liberal party leader, Nick clegg, with 50.6% of the vote to become the new leader, and participate in the ruling coalition in 2010, this is the important embodiment of the liberal party began to rise. So why did the liberal party show signs of recovery? The general economic downturn and even decline of western capitalist countries also led to the increase of occasional and unpredictable factors in their political field, which contributed to the prosperity of the liberal party.

From the dynamic analysis of institutional change, the second reason is the emergence of new powers which can change existing institutional arrangements and create or implement new institutional arrangements. For example, the losing side of the previous power struggle has returned strongly and won a new power struggle. Britain's liberal party, which has been in deep sleep for nearly 100 years since it retired from the historical stage in the early 20th century, was able to form a coalition government in 2010, participate in political affairs and influence the formulation of national policies. This strong return is the implementation of a new institutional arrangement to comply with this new institutional arrangement.

The existing system of the UK will also affect the process of the legitimacy and rationality of the new system. When this specific system arrangement is formed, it will become an integral part of the overall system. Therefore, new institutional arrangements may or may not adapt to the existing system, which affects its prospects of survival and stability throughout the system. Under the existing two-party system in the UK, it remains to be seen how the liberal party can improve its ability and level to participate in politics, influence political life and whether the rise of the liberal party in the UK is really in line with the trend of the development of British parties.

Throughout the rise and fall of the British liberal party, you can see, it also mingled with the decline of the inevitability of chance, it is also the result of the internal and external factors, the decline of the liberal party after one hundred years of slumber in the UK, it can rise again, to participate in the political life, seems to be a certain system arrangement has its own life in influence subsequent institutional change process.

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