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Reasons for the decline of the feudal manor system

2018-11-05 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- Reasons for the decline of the feudal manor system,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了封建庄园制衰落的原因。中世纪时期,日本和英国的封建庄园制度存在着一定的相似性。日本的封建庄园制产生于8世纪末期,是通过寄进和分封而形成的寄进制庄园体制。13世纪封建领主一元领有制的建立动摇了庄园制的基础,后来南北朝内乱后守护大名领国制的形成导致庄园制基本衰落。英国的封建庄园制自诞生之后,在1415世纪伴随着由于农奴锐减农奴制的衰落,庄园制也走向了衰亡的道路。16世纪前后,不管是日本的庄园制还是英国的庄园制都在支撑了各自经济、政治、社会生活之后走向了终结。它们的衰亡同制度本身一样,既有各自突出的特点又有一定的相通之处。

feudal manor system,封建庄园制衰落的原因,essay代写,作业代写,代写

In the middle ages, both Japan and England belonged to the feudalism system of feudalism. The feudal manor system in Japan originated in the late 8th century. In the 13th century, the establishment of monadic feudal Lord system shook the foundation of manorial system. After 1467, the "should benevolence chaos" broke out in the country, and the declining manorial system completely disappeared in the chaos of decades of war. The feudal manor system in England dates back to Anglo-Saxon times and reached its peak in the 13th century. In the 14th and 15th centuries, the decline of serfdom was accompanied by the decline of serfdom. Around the 16th century, both the Japanese plantation system and the British plantation system came to an end after supporting their economic, political and social life. Their decay, like the institution itself, has its own distinct characteristics and certain similarities. This paper makes a comparative study of the similarities and differences that lead to the decline and fall of the two manors, and seeks the historical development law of the feudal manors, so as to better grasp the trend and development of the feudal society in Japan and Britain after the fall of the manors.

The manor rulers of the kamakura era were the manor Lord and the head of the royal family who acted as the governor. Farmers not only have to bear the free labor of planting barons, building canals, DAMS and so on, but also suffer from the expropriation from the land. The peasants were in great pain, forced to flee and resist, but would soon be brought back to earth. But the violence of the land did not stop the resistance of the peasants; for desertion was a threat to the land. The shogunate issued "zhen yongshi mu" on the ground to curb the atrocities, the treatment of the peasants "should be from the public opinion". In late kamakura, farmers in areas with relatively advanced agricultural production began to unite around the masters, strengthening their struggle against the manor Lord and against the landowners.

From the middle and late stage of kamakura to the late stage of muromachi, the peasants in the lower stratum gradually got rid of their personal attachment and became independent smallholders through escape or migration, "underground invitation" resistance, formation of rural autonomy and initiation of peasant uprising. The Japanese history of manor generally recognized this process as the process of "self-reliance" of farmers, and the process of self-reliance of farmers as the internal cause of the dissolution of feudal manor. From the inside, it can be said that the process of the medieval Japanese peasants confronting the manor Lord is the gradual decline of the manor.

The fall and fall of the manor should be synchronized with the fall and fall of the serfdom. With the dissolution of the British manorial system, the British serfdom was also on the way to decline. In this process, the British serfs, out of the desire to get rid of the heavy labor, resisted the feudal Lord and yearned for the free status, also adopted the similar struggle with the Japanese farmers. Many serfs chose to abandon their farms in search of better soil and better conditions. There were also serfs who, in order to gain freedom, moved to cities and left farming for other jobs. Once the slave has escaped from the manor, the Lord can capture him anywhere for the first four days and bring him back to the manor. Four days later, the situation was different. The serfs were already at liberty, and the Lord could only arrest them by seeking court help. And if the serf had lived in a municipality for 101 days, he would have been a free man and could not be charged by the Lord as long as he remained in the municipality. The outbreak of the black death began in the mid-14th century, resulting in a serious decline in the labor force and further accelerating the escape or migration of serfs. Manor farm waste, serfs are refugees, long-term French wars led to tax increases, coupled with the feudal government of the time in order to safeguard the interests of the feudal lords Labour laws promulgated many times, in an attempt to limit the wage level before the black death, the sharp contradiction is more and more fierce, finally reached a maximum in 1381 - watt Taylor peasant uprising broke out. Compared with the Japanese masayoshi uprising, the wat Tyler uprising did not succeed, but to some extent accelerated the decline of the plantation system and serfdom, and dealt a blow to the feudal Lord and system.

The important sign of serfdom is the labor rent, and the use of labor rent must be based on the existence of the manor. The collapse of the manor is that the Lord no longer manages his own land, and the labor rent becomes money rent or material rent. The conversion of labor rent to monetary rent played an important role in the decline of the plantation system in Japan and Britain.

In the mid-13th century, through the reclamation of wasteland in remote areas, the area of agricultural cultivation was expanded. Stimulated by the development of agricultural productivity, handicraft industry and commerce have been further developed. The handicraftsmen began to gain independence from agriculture, and the irregular bazaars developed into regular bazaars. Under the background of the development of commodity economy caused by the development of agriculture and handicraft industry, "money rent" was born. The emergence of money land rent has led to the emergence of the sale of famous land, which has transformed the peasants' right of possession of land into the ownership of land. On the contrary, the sale of mingtian also led to the dissolution of the "mingtian system", which promoted the rise of local lords, gave rise to the emergence of the system of guarding the neighboring countries, and the double attack on the feudal manor system accelerated its decline.

In Britain in the late 13th century and the early 14th century, as a result of the development of market networks and the formation of national markets, the use of money became increasingly rich and widespread, and money became the main means of circulation to permeate the countryside. The manor Lord gradually gave up the traditional labor rent and accepted the money rent. At the same time, the Lord also sold the labor. After the outbreak of the black death, by the middle and late 14th century, the feudal lords had abandoned direct management of the manor lands and turned to tenant management. The tenancy system enabled the Lord to get not only the converted money of the serfs but also the rent from the land. But the interior and economy of the manorial system changed substantially under the tenancy system. One was the relationship between serfs and their Lord, who became tenants, who became the Lord's direct tenants. The second was that as the serfs became sharecroppers, the Lord's economy, which was converted into money, disappeared, leaving only serfdom. Therefore, the feudal manor system was ultimately pushed to the road of extinction.

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