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The impact of keynesianism on the British welfare state system

2018-11-01 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- The impact of keynesianism on the British welfare state system,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了凯恩斯主义对英国福利国家制度的影响。二战后的几十年里,凯恩斯主义对英国和其他许多西方国家的经济决策产生了深远的影响,这是因为它成了战后西方经济学派中的主导理论,在有关政府管理、充分就业和促进消费方面起着重要的促进作用。20世纪中期英国实行的凯恩斯主义是经济政策发展的一次重大变革,而这种主张干预的经济政策注重对全社会的资源合理分配,尤其是保障低收入人群的生活水平,进而产生了福利制国家。

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Since the 20th century, Britain has lost its huge advantage in the fierce competition of the second industrial revolution. This change from a one-track style to a world full of flowers forced Britain to change its laissez-faire national policies, and keynesianism became a good substitute. After the end of the World War II, the national contradiction continued to stand out, which further required the state to strengthen management in all areas of society rather than let it run its own way. From the perspective of social security, it was to establish a welfare system to guarantee the basic rights of citizens and maintain social stability. In line with keynesianism, both of them are to strengthen the government's management of various fields of society, while the implementation of the former is to lay a solid theoretical foundation for the implementation of the latter.

The UK is a world domination in the 20th century to return to Europe's time, has experienced the baptism of the first and second world wars, British people have come to accept unable to return to the past glory of reality, social economic, political, and cultural thought, the security aspect of contradiction increasingly exposed, especially the British have been proud of economic and political liberalism has not in tune with the slow development of Britain, the British after repeated change of government and policy changes at the end of world war ii to the Keynesian is the opposite of the liberal thought, in adherence to the increased government intervention and guidance to the market under the thought of, This article attempts to make a brief analysis of the contribution of keynesianism to Britain's welfare state.

Since the end of the 18th century, Britain has been the first country to complete the industrial revolution, with a surge in production and improved production efficiency, becoming the world's leading capitalist power, and its industrial products far ahead of other countries. In this powerful to almost without any opponent, laissez-faire, the British government introduced the policy ? stems from Adam Smith's "the wealth of nations" and "moral sentiments" the second book. He wrote, as well as in many other occasions he guided by an invisible hand, try to achieve a is not his intention to achieve the purpose of, is not because things, was not part of is harmful to society, he pursue their own interests, often can make it more effective than really meant cases to promote the interests of the society. ? Adam Smith advocated by the classical liberalism, is a highly developed industry in the UK under the best means to maximizing the interests of the state and entrepreneurs, but by the end of the golden rule in the second half of the 19th century was shaken, beauty by France and Germany and other countries to catch up with threats, new liberalism classical liberalism was forced to shift, with John ? muller, hobhouse, Samuel as a representative of new liberalism scientists begin to there is the relationship between human and society, the social collective theory, the concept of the state, and so on to modify laissez faire. That is to say, neoliberalism contains the collective spirit missing from orthodox liberalism and makes it compatible with individualism. New liberalism in the late 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century was to play a good role in promoting the development of British, Lloyd George ? successively enacted the elderly subsidy laws, the industry commission act, the national insurance law, to completely laissez-faire, the evolution of the development mechanism of change, this is the British social policy shift FuLiZhi state of a signal.

However, neoliberalism did not do enough. The economic crisis of the 1930s severely impacted liberal policies, and laissez-faire was regarded as the source of this chaotic order. At this time, an important economist named Keynes appeared. The general theory of employment interest and money, published by Keynes in 1936, dismisses the idea of laissez-faire. Keynes believed that the main causes of poverty were low wages and unemployment, while the main causes of unemployment were inadequate effective demand, which could not be provided by free economic development, and therefore the government should assume the responsibility. His theory proposes to use the fiscal and monetary policies of the country to intervene in the economy, that is, to achieve full employment by stimulating consumption, thus eliminating poverty. During a recession, interest rates should be lowered and the money supply increased to stimulate consumption and investment, thus promoting production and full employment. If inflation occurs, corresponding measures to raise interest rates and reduce the money supply shall be adopted. The Keynesian theory was fully verified in the World War II. Through the effective intervention of the state, Britain stabilized prices, wage income rose, people's nutrition status was improved, daily necessities became more practical and effective, and market competition was effectively restricted by the government. As a result, some scholars commented: "if the winning institution is the state, the means of winning is centrally planned allocation of resources." Keynesian marks the destroy of liberalism and transformation to the state and the functions of the government point of view, he won the Nobel Prize in economics, a set of economic theory will provide social welfare field of social welfare and economic combined production areas, demonstrates that the government should intervene, intervention, intervention, how to make social policy and economic, but also deepened the understanding of the social welfare. Therefore, the implementation of the welfare policy is the general trend.

The world's first welfare system was established in bismarck's Germany, while the British welfare system was implemented in the era of the attlee government after the second world war, which originated from a "beveridge report". Britain's welfare society and nationalization policy can be said to be the two major policies implemented by the post-war labor party. The main content of the beveridge report of 1942 is to establish a comprehensive social security system, so as to take the eradication of poverty, disease, material and laziness as the responsibility of the government, namely to build a "cradle-to-grave" society. This society naturally depends on the active intervention of the government. Labour's welfare state and nationalisation were largely achieved between 1949 and 1950, thanks to the foundation laid by the liberals in the early 20th century. The establishment of welfare state needs three basic principles: the principle of universality, the principle of full employment, and the principle of social security expenses Shared by employees, employers and the ministry of finance. The report was the first salvo in Britain's welfare state. After everything is ready, the new government starts to implement the welfare state policy. Unemployment is the top priority. The government stabilizes employment through a series of actions, such as fiscal subsidies, reasonable allocation of industries and job creation. In addition, the government implemented a social reform plan to establish a complete national health care service system. On the issue of housing, in April 1946 the Labour party set up the executive committee on housing construction, which built 139,000 apartments, 227,000 in 1948, 197,000 in 1949, 195,000 in 1950 and 194,000 in 1951. In addition, the government repaired a large number of houses damaged during the war to make them habitable. Social security is an important foundation of the welfare state, and the industrial injury act of 1945 replaces the old workers' compensation law with plans to be paid jointly by employers and employees. After a series of changes, attlee announced in 1948 that four pieces of legislation -- the national insurance law, the industrial injury law, the national subsidy law, and the national health service law -- would come into force tomorrow Every family member will be protected. The social security system was established, and two years later the government officially declared it the "welfare state system." Since then, welfare system has become a significant mark of British society.

In the decades after the war, keynesianism had a profound impact not only on Britain but also on the economic decisions of many other western countries, because it became the dominant theory in the postwar western school of economics, playing an important role in promoting government administration, full employment and promoting consumption. Of course, keynesianism is not set in stone. It can be said that the management mode advocated by keynesianism, that is, the positive government intervention mode led to the final formation of welfare state. Therefore, the emergence of welfare state is the manifestation of keynesianism, and also the inevitable result of Britain after world war ii. At the same time, the country's economic development is intertwined with politics, because both parties fight each other, they have to pay attention to the short-term economic development in order to buy hearts and minds, so pay attention to the construction of the welfare state, this makes the following Keynesian policies when they encounter with human intervention, it will cause a vicious cycle of high unemployment, high inflation. In the short term, such efforts to cut interest rates ahead of a general election to boost prosperity and the tightening of monetary policy after a general election will leave the government to one side or the other. In the long run, it is not good for the economy in the long run. In fact, the average annual growth rate of British national output was 2.89 percent between 1052 and 1964, lower than that of the major European and American capitalist countries in the same period. The UK was lagging behind among big countries. The excessive emphasis on state intervention and over-reliance on the welfare system led to the "stagflation" of the British economy, also known as "British disease". The government's utter failure to tackle inflation and unemployment, coupled with the growing wave of strikes, led to the collapse of the Labour party and the return to power of the conservatives led by thatcher 34 years later.

The keynesianism implemented in Britain in the mid-20th century was a significant change in the development of economic policies, and such interventionist economic policies focused on the rational allocation of resources to the whole society, especially the guarantee of the living standard of low-income people, and thus produced the welfare state. However, in the UK, excessive state intervention and the input of welfare security led to the stagflation of the development of the UK. Therefore, when Mrs. Thatcher came to power, she timely abandoned keynesianism and naturally reduced the input to the welfare system. However, it is by no means feasible to abandon keynesianism and reduce welfare expenditure for Britain to regain its rapid development. On the contrary, appropriate state intervention and good national welfare system have been accepted by the vast majority of countries and are an important means to maintain national stability and promote national development.

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