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The development of American education

2018-10-29 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- The development of American education,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国教育学的发展美国教育学因应培训教师的需要而获得发展的生命力。在美国教育的发展过程中,大学日益成为教育学发展的主要场所。在以学科的形式进入大学之后,美国教育学的科学研究作为大学教学的一部分逐渐得到认可。在美国大学制度框架下,美国教育学的学科建制逐渐趋于完善,教育学的专业性不断增强,教育学的内容不断拓展,教育学的研究方法得以更新,教育学的理论探讨也在不断深入。

American education,美国教育学发展,essay代写,作业代写,代写

American pedagogy acquires development vitality in response to the needs of training teachers. In the process of education spread in the United States, normal schools gradually lose the exclusive status of pedagogy, and universities increasingly become the main place for the development of pedagogy. After entering the university as a subject, the scientific research of American pedagogy is gradually recognized as a part of university teaching. Under the framework of American university system, the discipline construction of American pedagogy tends to be improved gradually, the professionalism of pedagogy is constantly enhanced, the content of pedagogy is constantly expanded, the research methods of pedagogy are updated, and the theoretical discussion of pedagogy is also continuously deepened. In fact, the academic status of American pedagogy is not stable, and its scientific nature is constantly questioned. Such doubts about the value and utility of education science have always influenced the development of American pedagogy, causing its fate to ebb and flow. Even so, American pedagogy keeps changing with the change of teacher education, and people's understanding of it gradually goes deeper. The study of American pedagogy development can provide us with historical basis for analyzing, discriminating, reflecting and judging the American pedagogy theory, and provide useful enlightenment for the development of Chinese pedagogy.

In the history of education, the western center for the development of education changed its location, and finally took root in the United States, attracting worldwide attention. Throughout the development history of education in the United States, the establishment of American public school system promoted the rapid popularization of education, triggered the urgent demand for teachers in the field of education in the United States, and promoted the rapid development of American teacher education, thus providing quite favorable space for the development of American education. With the evolution of American normal schools to teacher colleges, then to state colleges, and then to local state universities, teacher schools gradually lost their identity as a single-purpose institution that focused on education. "Education's professional learning is slowly but truly moving toward the academic bastions of colleges and universities," said education historian John brubeck. And, "it is the growing demand for training middle school teachers, and the new dignity given to the education discipline by science and philosophy, that has opened a gap in the academic wall." For American education discipline in terms of overall development, "from the early independent normal school to today's comprehensive university institute of education, academic institutions, name and set the change reflects the American education has achieved from the single in the history of the discipline orientation/closure-oriented professional teacher education into a broad interdisciplinary research category, the cultivation of talents are far beyond the scope of teacher education." This shows the historical change of the function of American pedagogy. Under the framework of American university system, American pedagogy is becoming more and more scientific, professional and academic. This paper intends to make a historical analysis of the development of American pedagogy in order to contribute to the development of Chinese pedagogy.

In the evolution and significance of American educational concepts, professor shen jianping from education college, university of western Michigan argues that, "in the last century and a half, educational concepts have experienced a process from rise and decline to gradual revival. It was not until the first decade of the 20th century that education became a common concept. By 1890, at least 45 universities had established teaching chairs. At the turn of the 20th century, prominent scholars like Dewey held the position of 'chief professor of philosophy and education' at the university of Chicago. The university of New York, the university of Wisconsin, for example, has awarded advanced degrees in education. His passage reflects the historical summary of the development of American pedagogy, from which it can be seen that American pedagogy is basically developed under the framework of university system.

From the perspective of history, as early as 1832, the city university of New York, the predecessor of New York university, opened an educational program. In 1890, the university established the education college and awarded a master's degree in education and a doctorate in education. The state teachers college of New York in Albany awards a bachelor's degree in education. Many universities in the United States, especially in the western United States, established positions as professors of education in the last 20 years of the 19th century. As someone said, "at that time, Americans had begun to master science in a sense, but had not lost their rational, moral, and aesthetic belief, and had an unimaginable optimism about knowledge development and social progress. The most confident social group, after all, is the male descendant of enlightened protestant English in the American countryside, many of whom became the first education academics in their universities. The pedagogical professors in this period had a clear tendency of valuing theory over practice. It is argued that: "in the minds of the pioneers of pedagogy, systematic theory is clearly random, and the basis of education science is uncontrolled experience. Back in the 1890s, consistent with a more general movement, it was also clear that as a leading law school, the education academy's curriculum was to reduce practice and eulogy." This pedagogical perspective was dominant at the time.

American pedagogy has developed constantly in response to the needs of teacher training. In 1893, someone wrote in teacher as a career expert: "in what ways can the professional status of teachers be improved? Its improved performance in many areas, especially in providing better preparation for comprehensive training. First, normal schools are improving. Second, scientific research in pedagogy is gaining acceptance as part of university teaching. Third, the method is starting up, and the special advantage is that it can be applied to teachers who have already started their work. Such systematic training courses for teachers are provided by colleges and technical schools. In 1890, New York state normal school in Albany was first reorganized as New York state normal college, according to crane's research. At this point, some of the nation's better normal schools began to develop formal four-year bachelor's programs. These normal schools were gradually upgraded to universities. At the same time, some liberal arts colleges and universities have responded by setting up formal education departments or offering formal lectures on pedagogy to meet the needs of the society for secondary school teachers. By 1900, a quarter of American colleges and universities had established a formal education major. With the increasing number of teachers, pedagogy, as a subject, has expanded its content.

During this period, the science of education in the United States broke away from subjective judgment in the traditional sense, and focused on analyzing and inferring through data, which made it increasingly scientific. In this case, education science in the United States achieved rapid development, and people have a further understanding of education science. As two important forces, education administrators and teachers of education universities form a synergy on the basis of long-term cooperation and become the core driving force for the professional development of teachers in the United States. They raise new demands for education science. On the one hand, they set standard, content and review procedures. On the other hand, they mostly know the nature of teachers' profession from the educational level. They believe that the value of education subject knowledge is the main manifestation of teacher's professional work, and the main way to achieve teacher professionalism lies in the independent setting of teacher colleges and the emphasis on education subject in the curriculum system. Moreover, education professors at a college or university combine two traditions of teacher education professional preparation: one that focuses on academic preparation, and one that is based on the basic principles of the apprenticeship system in a normal school with explicit instructional training and supervised internship representation.

Over time, the education subject classification of American normal schools gradually formed, and was continuously divided and refined. As it turned to the 20th century, the normal school opened a wide range of education professional disciplines. The first class of education majors is the basic theory of education. Under this name, some schools have education philosophy, and all normal schools have education psychology. The second type of education professional course is the history of education, which is also widely offered in normal schools. In this period, the history of education is more famous than other education majors. The third category of education specialty is the general subject. It teaches theories and techniques of teaching. Finally, work or practice in a model school. By 1902, there were enough professors to form a new organization, the national college teachers education society, later known as the association of professors of education.

By the 1920s, the institutions of education research in American universities had been established, which promoted the development of pedagogy in American universities. As early as 1915, 300 out of 600 universities offered education courses. Plus higher education or teachers' colleges, more education courses are offered. "According to statistics, in 1920, there were more than 400 higher education colleges in the United States with systematic education programs, such as education history, education method, and education administration. Recent progress of each university education division and normal school, the kind has education science to study course more, for the person that is engaged in studying education in general lifetime and place of person that prepare top degree place compulsory." According to statistics, there were 480 universities and colleges in the United States in 1940, of which 250 had education courses, accounting for 52%.

The continuous development of American education is inseparable from the contributions of education scholars. "The first generation of education scientists succeeded with missionary zeal in laying the intellectual foundations of the education discipline that future education leaders will need." These education scholars pioneered and innovated on the basis of their criticism of learning from the educational theories of other countries. As a result, America gradually became the exporter of education from the importing country of education. "After the civil war, especially after the first world war, the education researchers in the United States, in addition to criticizing and drawing on other countries, also in the education concept and practice, vigorously and self-reliant exploration and research, become the pioneering education academic. In the history of science of human education, they became the importing country of education's wisdom on the one hand, and the exporter of education's treasures on the other hand, and thus became the leader in the academic field of education. In particular, with the efforts of American education scholars, the discipline construction system of American pedagogy has been gradually improved and the theoretical discussion has been continuously deepened.

In 1832, garrod gave his first lecture on education at New York university. "In 1852 the university of indiana first proposed the addition of the education discipline to the names of higher learning. Iowa and Michigan state are not far behind. After the civil war, the latter two universities transformed their pedagogical lectures into education departments. Before the end of the 19th century, established universities such as harvard and Yale also offered education courses. Such a beginning, often has become the old academic foundation of the branch of philosophy, psychology. In the first decade of the twentieth century, the Midwestern state universities have further reorganized their education departments into separate education colleges. In a report to the university's board of trustees in 1874, James b. angel, the President of the university of Michigan, stated the purpose of offering educational courses: "there is no doubt that it would be very useful to offer them to the higher classes. Many of them will go straight from college to management jobs at large schools, and some will become regional superintendents. Make overall arrangements for school work, manage primary and grammar schools, supervise teaching and school work, all of which require them to learn about pedagogy before they enter the workforce. Experience alone is enough to develop these skills, but familiarity with the field is also valuable. This shows that "pedagogy" in American universities at that time had little relationship with teaching practice, and was mostly based on theory and research.

In fact, "even the work done in pedagogical lectures should not focus too much on what is directly related to teacher training and should not be of practical value. The scientific research and teaching of a science and a skill can always improve the practice of technology on the purely theoretical level. But the present pedagogy lecture which appears in the university, should speed up the subject research, promotes the teaching technology enhancement." Presidents of other universities have a similar awareness and put it into practice. In 1877, the university of Iowa started education under President josiah l. picard. In 1882, Alan, principal of a state normal school in Minnesota, asked in an article published in education whether there was a science of education. And what he's going to talk about is convinced that education science exists. Education science, he argues, includes "fundamental assumptions that relate to man as Newton's law of gravity does to the physical world".

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