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U.S. aid to Africa

2018-10-29 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- U.S. aid to Africa,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国对非洲的援助。美国对非洲的援助始于上个世纪,在彼时冷战的背景之下,美国总统杜鲁门在就职演讲中提出了第四点计划,旨在利用美国先进的科学技术和雄厚的工业基础来帮助落后的国家走上发展之路,从而达到在政治上扩大自己势力范围的目的。此后,美国根据自身以及世界发展趋势的考虑,对非洲援助的力度具有较为明显的起伏。

Africa,美国对非洲的援助,essay代写,作业代写,代写

Foreign Assistance usually refers to the Assistance provided by a country or organization to other countries or organizations in the form of free or partially paid funds, technologies, materials, etc., to help the receiving country or organization overcome the difficulties it faces or achieve the purpose of providing Assistance. Foreign aid is one of the important means for a country to conduct diplomacy, which can promote the further development of bilateral relations and enhance its influence in the world. Africa is the most backward developing region among the five continents, and has been one of the key areas receiving foreign aid due to its abundant natural resources and relatively important strategic value. The United States is the largest contributor of aid to Africa. Its aid mechanism is mature, its aid policy is clear and its aid content is diversified. Considering that Africa is an important part of China's international relations and that China's aid to Africa is still in its infancy and development stage, it is necessary to conduct research on American aid to Africa for China's learning and reference.

America's aid to Africa began in the 1950 s, at that time under the background of the cold war, President Truman put forward the political implications in his inaugural speech extremely strong Point Four Program, aimed at using the advanced science and technology and strong industrial base to help "third world" countries on the road to development, so as to expand your sphere of influence in politics. Since then, considering the development trend of the United States and the world, the intensity of assistance to Africa has fluctuated significantly, which can be mainly divided into the following five stages in terms of time.

The first stage was from the early 1950s to the early 1960s. This period was also the beginning of the cold war, when the world pattern changed into a "bipolar pattern". In the first half of this phase, the United States began its assistance to Africa, mainly with technical assistance; In the second half of this phase, along with the growing independence movement in Africa, the United States began to gradually increase its aid to Africa, mainly with the urgent economic aid, in order to gain more potential political Allies and suppress the political expansion of the Soviet union in emerging countries. Therefore, at this stage, American aid to Africa is on the rise, mainly in technical assistance at the beginning, mainly in economic assistance at the later stage, and with a strong political purpose.

The second stage is from the mid-1960s to the late 1970s. As the cold war intensified, the relationship between the United States and the Soviet union became more and more tense. The United States was caught in the quagmire of Vietnam war, economic crisis and Middle East oil crisis. At this stage, the United States has to cut its aid to Africa, which is not the primary alliance region, for its own strategic security. However, the United States has not completely given up on Africa and is instead contributing to Africa through cooperation with European Allies, spreading the pressure and maintaining its influence in Africa. Therefore, at this stage, the United States' aid to Africa is on the decline, and the aid is shifted from political and strategic aid to development aid.

The third stage is the entire 1980s. As the Soviet union was unable to maintain its strategy of hegemony in the war in Afghanistan, the American economy gradually recovered, and the cold war pattern changed into the situation of "U.S. aggression against Soviet union". In the first half of this phase, the United States took the initiative in the cold war, and its aid to Africa was greatly enhanced by its strategy of attracting African countries and thus isolating the Soviet union internationally. In the second half of this period, Africa became less politically important to the United States as the Soviet union became powerless, and the United States cut its economic aid to African countries. Therefore, at this stage, the United States' aid to Africa showed a sharp rise in the initial stage and a sharp decline in the later stage, and the aid mainly consisted of political and economic reform aid and food aid.

The fourth stage is from the early 1990s to the early 2000s. The world pattern has changed from the "bipolar pattern" in the cold war to the "one super many strong" in the United States. At the beginning of this phase, the United States urgently needed to establish a new international order led by itself in the world. Therefore, it increased its assistance to Africa to show its strength and expand its sphere of influence in Africa. Since then, thanks to the collapse of the Soviet union, the United States has been able to get a satisfactory return on less aid in Africa, and has cut aid accordingly. Therefore, at this stage, the United States' assistance to Africa showed a trend of improvement in the early stage and decline in the later stage, and the assistance was mainly based on political and economic reform assistance.

The fifth stage is the early 21st century. After "9.11" incident, the United States for its own security, at the beginning of the global strategic focus turned to fight terrorism. Africa, because of its poverty and weakness, is easily a breeding ground for terrorism, which has become a focus of attention in the United States. At the same time, Africa's economic status has been enhanced by its greater energy resources. These two factors make the United States pay more attention to Africa, and the degree of assistance to Africa is different from that before. Therefore, at this stage, the U.S. assistance to Africa shows a sharp upward trend.

Currently, the United States, as the largest bilateral foreign aid country in the world, has more kinds of ways and institutions of aid to Africa. Generally speaking, the way of aid to Africa can be divided into bilateral aid and multilateral aid from the perspective of channels, and the institutions of American aid to Africa can be divided into official agencies and unofficial agencies from the perspective of nature.

The United States approach to Africa adopts a multi-flowering strategy of bilateral aid and multilateral assistance.

U.S. bilateral aid to Africa refers to the money, technology and materials provided by the United States without payment or compensation in the form of agreements between the United States and Africa or African countries, so as to help Africa or African countries through difficult times or development. Taking the actual bilateral aid program to Africa in 2010 as an example, it can be divided into five categories: global health and child survival, food aid, development aid, economic support fund and security aid.

The United States' multilateral assistance to Africa means that the United States provides assistance funds to international aid organizations, and the international aid organizations will provide corresponding assistance according to their aid plans for Africa. U.S. multilateral assistance to Africa is an important part of U.S. assistance to Africa, and most of this assistance focuses on strengthening government administration, transportation, agriculture and various social issues. The United States provides multilateral assistance to Africa mainly through two major international aid organizations: the international development association, which is affiliated with the world bank, and the African development fund, which is affiliated with the African development bank. The international development association is the single largest source of African development funds.

The official agencies of us aid to Africa mainly involve the White House, other agencies such as the state department, the us congress, the us Treasury Department, the us agency for international development, the us department of agriculture and the us embassy and consulate in Africa.

Among the bilateral aid, the White House and the state department are the decision-making bodies to formulate the guidelines, programs and amounts of aid to Africa. The United States congress is responsible for considering and voting on these assistance to Africa and returning the results to the state department; The United States agency for international development is the main executive arm of aid-for-Africa legislation that has been amended and passed. U.S. embassies and consulates in Africa are responsible for the specific implementation and management of assistance to African countries. In multilateral assistance: the U.S. Treasury is responsible for liaising with and consulting with international aid organizations on multilateral assistance to Africa. Therefore, from the whole process of American official aid to Africa, the official agency shows a top-down aid system from decision-making to implementation.

The unofficial organizations of American aid to Africa mainly include American unofficial organizations and international aid organizations. As a private organization of the United States, the United States is also a force to be reckoned with in its aid to Africa. In the process of its aid to Africa, it is not influenced by the official agencies of the United States. On the contrary, the idea advocated by it in the process of aid to Africa affects the U.S. government's aid policy to Africa through various channels. As an international organization, international aid organizations are less affected by a single country in the process of aid to Africa, thus have continuity and reliability in the process of aid to Africa, and are an important part of aid to Africa. It communicates with the U.S. government through the U.S. Treasury Department and negotiates specific assistance.

Since the beginning of the 21st century, the United States has significantly strengthened its aid to Africa compared with the past. In 2000 American aid to Africa totalled about $1.7 billion, but by 2005 it had doubled to $3.4 billion, and in just five years. From 2006 to 2012, according to the distribution data of American foreign aid by region, Africa has been the largest share of American foreign aid among the five continents, and its share has increased from a quarter in 2006 to nearly a third in 2012. This fully demonstrates the special importance of Africa in U.S. foreign aid. There is reason to believe that this trend will remain the same for years and even decades to come.

Since the beginning of the 21st century, the United States has greatly increased its aid to Africa, but at the same time, it has made more and more specific demands on recipient countries.

America's aid to Africa is usually not assistance free of charge, but with a certain purpose, the purpose is mainly manifested in the requirement by the recipient in the United States African identity of democratization, liberalization and human rights reforms, in order to influence African country ownership of ideological and political pattern, induces African country ownership become pro-American forces, to extend its sphere of influence in politics, economically grasp the purpose of the lifeblood of the recipient countries in Africa. In addition, during the Obama administration, the United States also stipulated the right of unilateral withdrawal and suspension of aid to ensure that aid recipients in Africa could effectively implement their designated aid programs. Thus further coercing the recipient countries of Africa to enforce the conditions of their assistance.

These conditions, though increasingly harsh, are hard for African recipients to resist. This is because the United States is the only "superpower" in the world, its total foreign aid is far higher than other countries, and the world aid organizations are mostly closely related to the United States. Take the international monetary fund and the world bank. The largest shareholder of the imf is the United States. Based on these elements, the United States can influence international foreign aid economically and politically. Due to the relatively backward level of development, African countries are in a weak position as they are in urgent need of foreign aid. The United States has used aid as a means to impose conditions that would make Africa more economically, politically and secure.

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