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The American social security system

2018-10-12 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- The American social security system,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国社会保障制度。美国的社会保障制度建立在社会立法基础上。社会保障制度的基本政策、法规都是由联邦政府统一制定的,州和地方政府制定的法律只能作为联邦法律的补充,而不能与之相抵触。因此,社会保障具有明显的制度化、社会化特征。所以美国严格而系统的立法,为建立现代社会保障体系创造了条件。

social security system,美国社会保障制度,essay代写,作业代写,代写

The social security system refers to the social insurance plan formulated by the state according to the social security law, a social economic system that gives material help to its citizens when they are old, sick, unemployed and lose their labor force. The ultimate goal is to maintain the minimum living standard of the laborers. The social security system mainly includes social insurance, social relief, social welfare, social special care and commercial insurance. Among them, social insurance is the main body of social security system.

As early as 1880s, Germany was the first country to introduce the social insurance system and a series of social insurance laws, which laid the foundation of social security. Subsequently, Western Europe, northern Europe and other capitalist countries followed suit. In the 1930s, the United States was the first country to enact the first social security law in the history of the world, and became the first country to implement the system of social security law.

Prior to the 1930s, the U.S. government pursued the so-called principles of free competition and natural selection and treated the entire economic and social life with laissez-faire attitude of non-interference. At the time, all contributions to social security, promotion, and dissemination were non-government, and the federal government was generally not involved. However, the great economic crisis of world capitalism in 1929-1933 brought serious disasters to the world's major industrialized capitalist powers, and the United States was also deeply affected. At one point, 10 million Americans were unemployed, accounting for about a quarter of the total labor force. The serious crisis has rendered the vast number of individual workers unable to cope with the increasing risks of unemployment, old age, disease, disability and so on. In order to ensure their economic security, they require social reform and the government to provide the responsibility of guaranteeing life and economic stability. In 1935, in order to get rid of the crisis, ease the domestic class contradictions and revitalize the American economy, under the presidency of President Roosevelt, the U.S. congress passed the social security law. As the world's first social security code, the law actually used the term "social security" for the first time. Its main content includes: to impose social security tax on employers and employees to implement mandatory federal medicare; Establishing unemployment insurance across the states; Establishment of disability insurance and elderly spouse endowment insurance and so on. After years of preparation, the social security law was put into effect in 1942 after a certain amount of funds were accumulated.

After the second world war, with the increasing economic strength of the United States, the level of social security in the United States has been improving. In the 1960s, President Johnson expanded spending on social security programs and created new welfare programs. As a result, government spending on social security grew faster than GDP. It is called the great society program because of its powerful policies. After Reagan took office in 1980, he used tax means to stimulate the development of private enterprise pension system and individual retirement savings, delegated the power and responsibility of organizing and implementing social security to private institutions, and integrated private institutions into the social security system, achieving some results. After the Clinton administration, with the call of "providing medical insurance for every American", he started to reform the "world's most expensive and wasteful" health care system, and promoted the universal health care plan. By 2007, nearly 50 million people in the U.S. were estimated to receive social security benefits, totalling about $602 billion, one of the largest federal spending programs. In 2006, 90 percent of Americans over 65 received social security benefits.

After more than 60 years of development and reform, the social security system in the United States has gradually developed and improved in content. Its main features are:

The basic policies and regulations of the social security system are uniformly made by the federal government, and the laws made by state and local governments can only supplement the federal laws, but cannot contradict them. Therefore, social security has obvious characteristics of institutionalization and socialization. Strict and systematic legislation creates conditions for the establishment of a modern social security system.

Medicare is administered directly by the federal government; Labor insurance is administered by the states themselves; Unemployment insurance is provided jointly by the federal and state governments. Railroad workers are in the charge of the federal railroad workers insurance agency; Federal employee insurance is administered by the federal civil service commission. This not only reflects the development requirements of socialization, scale and integration of social security, but also takes into account the specific requirements of individual security projects. For example, the separation of unemployment insurance and the combination of unemployment insurance and the employment promotion plan can effectively promote social employment.

Except unemployment insurance is paid unemployment tax by enterprise employer alone, other social insurance fund is paid by enterprise employer and employee according to certain proportion worker tax. Government finance will also be responsible for a certain proportion, typically about 20-30 per cent of the fund. Fiscal subsidies, of course, also come from taxes.

Social security in the United States, which focuses on the elderly, the disabled or the dependent, has a low level of security and aims to provide a minimum standard of living, with less coverage for others. The level of social security is decided according to the different economic conditions and bearing capacity of each place, according to the imbalance of regional economic development, the standard of various social security treatment is different according to region or enterprise.

How the social security system can be financed has been a headache for the U.S. government as its retirement population grows and its workforce shrinks. Ultimately, governments often intervene indirectly through policies such as tax increases or cuts in entitlement spending to achieve social security goals.

The basic policy principle of the social security system in the United States is the so-called emphasis on individual equity and social equity, that is, the welfare allowance is not only related to employees' salary to stimulate people's work enthusiasm, but also to take care of the low-income people, so that they can get a higher rate of original wage replacement. In order to harmonize the relationship between the above two principles, the us government adopts the constant adjustment of social security tax rates and various welfare subsidy standards to ensure that people can get alternative income to maintain their basic living needs.

It has maintained basic social stability and relatively eased social contradictions. Through social security, the redistribution of national income has been realized to some extent, and the elderly have been provided with economic and living care, and the unemployed have been compensated for their income and maintained their normal life for a certain period of time. This has not only reduced poverty, but also provided different levels of security for the life, aging, illness and death of workers. Therefore, the social security system has also been supported by the general public.

The implementation of social security system regulates the operation of American economy to some extent. When the economic development momentum is too strong, the adoption of social security measures can change part of the advanced consumption into lagging consumption, and turn part of consumption funds into production funds for expanding reproduction. As employment increases and profits increase, business owners have to pay more unemployment insurance benefits, allowing some of society's money to flow into the government's hands, thus slowing the economy's rapid growth and delaying the crisis. When the economy is in recession and many workers are out of work, unemployment compensation spending rises sharply, easing the recession. So social security has created a stable social environment for us economic growth.

The development of productivity is promoted by maintaining and improving the physical quality and working ability of workers. If medical treatment is sure to conduce to sicken worker to recover at an early date, restore working ability; Unemployed insurance is right to attend the unemployed personnel of vocational training, extend unemployed insurance to pay period, stimulative laborer raises working ability. In the sense of human capital investment, social security is also productive investment.

Although the social security system of the United States is quite dynamic to some extent and plays an important role in the development of American society and economy, there are many problems at the same time. These problems mainly include:

Social security is limited in scope and low in level. First of all, the old-age residual disability medical insurance only provides security for the elderly; Unemployment insurance and workers' compensation insurance exclude farm and small business workers. Second, America's pension replacement rate is low, averaging just 44 per cent, and unemployment compensation only 50 per cent. These levels are not only substantially below the oecd average, but also below the wage replacement level in many developing countries.

Social security spending is growing rapidly, and the U.S. government faces a huge fiscal deficit. With the increase of the retirement population and the decrease of the labor force in the United States, the pension and medical expenses keep increasing, and the social insurance expenditure in the United States is more than a quarter of the total government expenditure, the social security system has been seriously short of funds. So it is inevitable that the U.S. government will use tax increases or cuts in entitlement spending to increase revenue and cut spending. This not only increases the tax burden of enterprises, but also affects the enthusiasm of laborers to supply labor.

Inequality in income redistribution leads to higher premiums paid to high earners than to low earners. It is estimated that families earning between $50,000 and $100,000 a year receive $48 billion in social security benefits. Families with incomes above $100,000 will receive $15.5 billion, or 85 percent of social security benefits, going into the pockets of the middle - and upper-income groups, while large Numbers of lower-income people receive little. At the same time, earning more than $65400 in revenue part shall be exempted from payroll taxes, and non-labor income such as dividends, interest, rents, shall not pay taxes, coupled with the rich to enter the job often social night, capture expends time is short, long life, enjoy many other factors such as insurance, therefore, the working burden of low-income groups than high-income people.

Medicare, which is part of the social security scheme and has its own trust fund, has long and serious problems. The heavy medical expenditure has a great impact on the us economy. Medical treatment has not only become a heavy burden on the us economy and the primary factor of the us fiscal deficit, but also makes American companies overburdened on medical insurance and strangles the international competitiveness of American companies.

The United States government has sought to solve the problem of social security in order to make the existing system both economically viable and fully secure for those who need it most. Therefore, it is imperative to reform the current social security system. The United States is prepared to reform in the following areas.

To set up social medical insurance and provide medical and health services for the existing employees to realize the "universal health care plan".

Delay the retirement age, gradually raise the normal retirement age to 67 years old at 65 years old, cut the expenditure of welfare allowance by delaying payment, and increase the income of social security fund. In addition, the adjustment of pension can only refer to the index of rising prices and wages, but cannot be absolutely linked, and should also refer to other economic and social factors, especially the social insurance trust fund. If the trust fund balance rises above a certain percentage of expenditure, the annual pension allowance can be adjusted and increased; Otherwise, should maintain original level, reduce even.

Invest a portion of the social security accumulation fund in the securities market, rather than just buying government bonds, for higher yields. Experts estimate that if 40 percent of the social security accumulation fund were invested in the securities market, the return would be almost double what it is today, increasing to about 4.2 percent after inflation.

Replace welfare with work benefits. The government has developed a program to provide education training and funding to help people on the poverty line get more jobs, rather than simply providing financial subsidies to fuel their dependency.

Reduce the organization, reduce management personnel, reduce management fees. The social security administration plans to shrink administrators and delegate social security to state and local governments, reducing the federal government's dominant role in the social security system to reduce growing bureaucracy and unnecessary spending.

Raise the social security tax rate and increase individual accounts. Existing pay-as-you-go schemes remain unchanged, with a further 1.6 per cent deducted from the salaries of existing employees and credited to individual accounts, with funds managed by the government and given to individuals with certain investment options.

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