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Political marketing in the United States

2018-10-10 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- Political marketing in the United States,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国的政治营销。政治营销学是美国的一个跨学科研究领域,旨在从商业营销的角度对政治行为进行分析和指导。政治营销的兴起,标志着美国竞选模式从政党政治模式向候选人中心模式转变,它对美国式民主产生了深刻影响。政治营销是随着竞选市场化而不断发展起来的重要政治现象。政治营销是在竞选市场化和专业化趋势推动下逐渐成长起来的一个跨学科领域。

Political marketing,美国政治营销,essay代写,作业代写,代写

Political marketing is an interdisciplinary research field that emerged in the United States in the 1990s, aiming at analyzing and guiding political behaviors from the perspective of commercial marketing. As democracy became money politics, American politics became the monopoly of experts and elites, reducing voter participation. The rise of political marketing marks the transformation of American election model from party politics model to candidate center model, which has exerted a profound influence on American democracy. However, from the perspective of the development of democracy worldwide, the key is not to eliminate political marketing, but to put people back at the center of the democratic process.

2008 is an election year in the United States, with not only the President and 35 governors facing elections, but also Capitol hill to be reshuffled, with a fascinating campaign battle in American politics.

As early as the beginning of 2007, the Democratic Party candidate, such as Hillary Clinton kling, barack Obama, John Edwards early unravel campaign, set off a round of war is better than a round of marketing. In the republican camp, Arizona senator John McCain, a former New York mayor Judy giuliani, a former Massachusetts governor mitt ? mitt romney and former Arkansas governor mike huckabee, also successively, revolves around the nomination. The 2008 presidential election campaign, with no incumbent President or vice President as candidates, was a close and suspenseful free-for-all. Political marketing, featuring polls, political ads, fundraising, campaigning and grassroots efforts to visit voters, has been a big part of the campaign, as well as an important factor in determining some key constituencies. Critics say Mrs Clinton's tears in New Hampshire and Mr Obama's fiery speeches have had a profound effect on particular constituencies.

Political marketing is an important political phenomenon with the marketization of campaign. Campaigning is a way for political leaders to have power. In the United States, election is not only a kind of static institutional arrangement, but also a kind of social system engineering launched. Many scholars regard election politics as an "election engineering", which covers a lot of links such as campaign strategy planning, fund raising, campaign marketing and organization coordination. For presidential candidates, the road to the White House is a thoroughgoing political marathon. It takes a lot of time and energy to shake hands with countless celebrities, raise a lot of campaign funds, give a lot of speeches, give a lot of press interviews, run a lot of campaigns. A politician who is in the early stages of an election can't win an election without the support of a large number of campaign experts.

Organizing campaigns in the United States has long been the business of political parties, whose vast organization serves as the main electoral machine. A man who wants to be President must first seek to be nominated as a candidate by a political party. The early nomination system was dominated by party leader and organization mobilization. In the United States elections of 1800, there was the first partisan campaign battle. After 1828, the model of the party-dominated election became the dominant model of the American campaign. The basic model for party organizing campaigns is that, at the top of party power, the party leadership deliberates in the back room about nominating candidates, while local party organizations are responsible for mobilizing voters to support party candidates. If a political candidate wants to win the election, he must use the party organization system to carry out a vigorous campaign and form the momentum of one-sided public opinion. In the long primary season since announcing their candidacy, political candidates must be prepared to do their best, not only to raise money and hire campaign staff, but also to engage in some ideological preparation, trying to create a message that will appeal to potential voters in their party's primaries. Especially for the fledgling candidate, in the primary election, to enhance the popularity, to obtain the party voters' unwavering recognition and support, is the first priority.

To this transformation of American electoral politics, American scholars Austin laney, Nielsen perls' ratio, frank ? sola, etc are studied. They argue that the main reason for the transition is that candidates are nominated directly by voters in primaries, that the state civil service replaces the party system, and that it becomes more important to slash the ranks of party voters. As the party's influence declines, fewer voters see themselves as a party appendage, are less willing to vote by party labels, and the campaign support of local party organizations is no longer as important as it once was. It is not hard to see that soraff et al. explained the root cause of the failure of party election mode from the perspective of system.

Another American scholars about di baum gheit, research in the 1990 s, pay attention to examine from the Angle of system and the interaction of social change this transformation. She believes that the traditional presidential election was conducted on the basis of political parties. After the mid-20th century, this model was gradually replaced by the candidate centered campaign machine, which she called "the personalization of presidential election engineering organization". Baum gheit, think that this transformation is the key of three driving forces: one is the primary be selected party congress is the most important mechanisms, changed the original rely on party internal "master train an apprentice" type of models, but appears as "entrepreneurs", candidates based entirely on its own strength and the electoral judgment, their recruitment, don't need to stick to political background. Even independent candidates can win. Second, campaign finance management law, candidate can run by the state to provide public funding, at the same time provides individuals, organizations and the amount of donations, political action committees to campaign finance into the orbit of institutionalization and legalization, candidates do not have to rely on funding provided by the parties, completely can raise our political donations. Thirdly, the development of information and communication technology and the establishment of open media system enable candidates to promote themselves to voters by means of public media, political advertising and grassroots mobilization, without the help of party organization resources. In short, with the development of communication and transportation technology, various institutional factors and non-institutional factors play an important role. Baumgartner's explanation is very comprehensive, basically grasping the power source of the electoral model transformation.

Leaving aside the academic debate, there is little doubt that political parties are losing ground in the election. Against the background of the declining power of political parties, technological innovation began to promote election transformation and introduced many new behaviors in electoral politics, including news media, campaign donors, public relations companies, interest groups, etc. Candidates incorporate polls, radio and television ads, and other modern marketing techniques into the campaign frame. This effort has directly contributed to the professionalisation of the campaign apparatus, as the use of these new methods of campaigning requires highly specialized techniques that few parties and candidates possess. Especially with the rapid development of mass media, if American political candidates want to gain the understanding and support of voters, they must first demonstrate themselves through a series of activities: organizing a large campaign headquarters, financing a group of campaign strategists, and drawing up a campaign platform; Chartered planes to travel around the country to give lectures and send a large number of promotional materials; Hire special programs on TV stations and radio stations to establish an image in the audience's mind. To place full-page campaign advertisements and propaganda articles in newspapers and magazines; Hold various kinds of reception, give gifts and so on in the hotel and hotel. Campaign so complex transactions to political candidates were overwhelmed and forced them to hire professionals, gradually delegated to the specialized company to traders, completely with the logic of market exchange, operate as campaign of political affairs, politics is increasingly becoming a commodity into the exchange domain, the political commercialization of academia has increasingly become a focus of attention problems, the development of marketization and specialization of campaign promoted the professionalization of campaign politics.

Public relations companies have gone through a transformation process from commercial services to political services and finally to specialized political consulting companies. Public relations activities appeared very early in the United States. Organized and conscious public relations activities originated from the popular press and propaganda agency activities in the mid-19th century in the United States. Later, American ivey lee in 1903 launched the first in the history of a public relations firm, service for coal and railway industry, it is seen as a sign of modern public relations. However, the American business community and government did not really realize the importance of public relations at that time, and thought that public relations and the company's profits were different. However, by the 1920s, as the business community ignored the public interest, some upright journalists were so indignant that a "muckraking movement" aimed at exposing corporate scandals was launched in the press, triggering a public hatred of black-hearted businessmen. For the first time, big American companies have been confronted with a clash of commercial success and public opinion. In the face of public criticism, the business community began to pay attention to their own social image, public relations companies by the business community attention. It is in this context that politicians and entrepreneurs alike begin to value the principles and methods of public relations. For example, in 1917, President Woodrow Wilson establish federal public information commission, is responsible for the management of the public opinion of the World War I. Democrats established the permanent public relations office in 1928, and republicans established a similar body in 1932. Cramer Whitaker and Leon Baxter couple set up within the first political campaign of the company, a public relations consultant firm, greatly promote the commercial pr company operate a campaign adviser business. It was the famous hill-norton company that really stepped into the fray. The company was founded in 1927 in Cleveland, Ohio. Commissioned by some bankers and entrepreneurs, it struggled with the media and succeeded in persuading the press to resolve the deaths of those who had gone bankrupt in the steel stock war. Since then, hill has been officially in the public relations business. Hill's good results quickly attracted big customers across the country, and eventually the company opened in New York. After the New Deal, the hill company found that the strengthening of government supervision and the growing power of labor unions were irreversible, and the development of public relations business against the government became an inevitable trend. After the war, hill-norton helped the federation successfully persuade congress to increase its budget for planes and to open an office in Washington, the political capital of the United States. At this point, the hill - NORTON absorption Eisenhower White House chief Robert k. gray, political pr business began to replaced by pr company's business, political consultation become important functions of public relations company.

But the political consulting function of the pr firm was soon replaced by the services of professional political consultants on campaign services, such as mass media advertising and polling. Because public relations company when doing business, often require specific divided into media relations, public opinion polls, reception, information collection and other business, the business is highly specialized, need to recruit some special the personage inside course of study or subcontracted to specialized companies, public relations company just connect function into full play. Over time, political consultants that brought these professionals together began to emerge. Political consulting companies gradually play an important political role after the booming development of mass media, especially television. The development of mass media provides politicians with more opportunities to control media practitioners through public relations and influence public opinion. In this respect, candidates in national and state elections have a head start, further perfecting their campaign machines by gaining a deep understanding of the value of news, the technical limitations of news coverage, and the business privileges of the media. On March 1, 1981, graham & Co. became the largest private public relations and lobbying company in Washington, independent of hill-norton. It took Washington's lobbying culture to the extreme and became the leading company of American political public relations consultants. During the Reagan campaign in 1984, public relations companies were widely introduced, creating a flood of momentum that helped Reagan win the election in a landslide. Since then, the political pr company has gained a reputation in American politics and become a major player in campaign politics.

All in all, the rise of public relations consultants, marked by political candidates campaign organizations as the leading factor, the political public relations companies active in the model, is replacing the traditional political campaign mode, the leading role of political parties from campaign increasingly sidelined into awkward in a supporting role, this is the academic discussion on the candidate's campaign mode. The candidate-centered campaign mode has driven more and more attention to political marketing, and political marketing begins to become a relatively independent political affair.

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