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北美作业代写:Skinner and Rogers on education

2018-09-10 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- Skinner and Rogers on education,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了斯金纳与罗杰斯的教育观。斯金纳与罗杰斯分别是行为主义与人本主义两大心理学派的杰出代表,都是非常著名的教育家。斯金纳认为要把科学的方法应用于人类事务,就必须假定行为是有规律的,并且是被决定的。因此一旦发现这些规律就能借助于积极强化来预测和决定人的活动。罗杰斯的教育观则直接来源于他的心理咨询理论和实践,强调人的主观经验和自我实现潜能。

Skinner,Rogers,essay代写,作业代写,代写

Behaviorism and humanism are the two most influential psychological schools in the 20th century, among which skinner and Rogers are outstanding representatives, and they are also famous educators. This article intends to compare and analyze the differences between the two views of education and make a brief comment.

Humanistic educators Rogers and behaviorism educator skinner was "people with education" in 1955 about the problem of a series of sharp debate, on the surface, the focus of the debate is the education problems, but essentially represents the humanism educationist and behaviorism educator in a series of sharp opposition of the basic point of view.

Skinner strongly advocates the behaviorization of teaching objectives, and proposes to formulate specific and feasible behavioral goals, which should be stated in terms of observable and measurable behaviors, so as to make teaching evaluation with objective methods and measurement tools. Rogers, on the other hand, points out that the purpose of teaching is to cultivate "well-rounded people". He pointed out that the most fundamental mark of a well-rounded person is to be creative. Teaching should be good at developing students' creativity and developing their creativity.

Skinner believes that teaching is a typical process of human behavior, which follows a functional relationship, that is, teachers' behavior is the cause, students' behavior is the result, and students' behavior changes are the function of teachers' behavior changes. In this way, teaching is completely subject to the law of causality, which is applicable to scientific research, and it is expected to change students' behaviors by designing some behaviors of teachers. Rogers, on the other hand, advocates the theory of affective teaching. He believes that teaching is a kind of emotional activity among people. Teaching is to teach students to learn by themselves. Second, it provides students with opportunities and conditions for learning. These two points are the tasks that teachers must accomplish in teaching.

As Engels once pointed out, "no matter what attitude natural scientists take, they are still subject to philosophy." The disagreement between skinner and Rogers on education also stems from their dispute on some aspects of psychological research, which exactly reflects the philosophical position they follow.

Logical positivism is the first school of modern western philosophy of science. Skinner was guided by logical positivist philosophy in his attempt to apply pure scientific and technological methods to the investigation and control of human behavior. Skinner refers to the psychological view that insists on explaining behavior from the internal psychological activities of human beings as a kind of psychology rooted in primitive animism. He argues that since events in the skin cannot be experimentally verified, it makes no sense for a scientific psychology. Logical positivism regards scientific truth as a kind of tacit understanding between the observer and the agreement, which is obviously a satisfactory solution for behaviorism to predict and determine the observable behavior response according to controllable environmental stimuli regardless of internal psychological structure. According to skinner, the application of logical positivism to psychology "does not determine the existence of subjective events, but the extent to which we can scientifically study them". He believes that internal psychology and external behavior share the same physical dimension. Behaviorists exclude the consideration of feelings, consciousness and thinking processes, not because they do not exist, but because the scientific method can't do anything about them.

Rogers was philosophically dedicated to phenomenology and existentialism. Rogers referred to a person's inner world or empirical world as the "field of phenomena." Phenomenon field refers to the part that people perceive or realize. Each person perceives the world in his or her own unique way, so each person has different phenomena and different responses to the same objective reality. All people live in a subjective world of their own perception, a world that is "in any full sense known only to the individual himself". Clearly, this is a far cry from behaviorism's belief that human behavior can be understood and determined by external stimuli alone. The center of Rogers's theory is self-concept, which is a complete self-structure with individual phenomenon field as the core, interaction and connection with environment. In the language of existentialism, people are often referred to as "self" and "self-existence", and the individual is the center of human survival, and the principle of individuality is demonstrated by the subjective experience of individual life. Rogers has always regarded self-concept, self-realization and self-guidance as the basic viewpoints in his psychological research all his life. He proposed that subjective choice precedes behavior, which can be said to be Sartre's psychological proposition of "existence precedes essence". Rogers' relationship with existentialism in philosophy is very obvious

Skinner's educational view is based on his psychological research. Starting from studying the behavior of animals, he extended the s-r relationship to the environment-behavior relationship of human beings, and gradually formed the basic idea of predicting and controlling human behavior through operational means. He believes that the best environment for humans should be one that provides precise control and predictable results. Therefore, he emphasized that an ideal society should control the environment and human behavior, and proposed a behavioral technology theory based on the operational conditioning principle formed in animal experiments, and advocated to design a new culture based on the environmental control function to shape reasonable behavior. Skinner argued that to apply scientific methods to human affairs, it was necessary to assume that behavior was regular and determined. Therefore, once these rules are discovered, they can be used to predict, control, change, and determine human activities through positive reinforcement.

Rogers's educational view is directly derived from his "people-centered" psychological counseling theory and practice, and his most outstanding contribution is the creation of "patient-centered" non-directive psychological counseling therapy. In his opinion, the success of psychological counseling does not mainly depend on the consultant's professional knowledge and training, but on the consultant himself and his attitude towards the counselee, because the prerequisite of promoting the behavior change of the counselee is the interpersonal relationship and atmosphere in the counseling process. Therefore, he places special emphasis on human subjective experience and self-realization potential.

Skinner takes the observable behavior as the research object and focuses on the environmental factors that can change individual behavior, which has a positive effect on removing the subjectivity of idealism and improving the environment. Moreover, he has achieved great success in applying and spreading the theory to behavior correction, language learning and program teaching. For example, he stressed that the principle of timely feedback helps to motivate students to learn. The self-paced principle is conducive to students to choose their own learning methods; In particular, the principle of a small pace helps to reduce learning mistakes and enables most students to achieve success. Studying in order helps students master systematic knowledge. However, skinner, as a typical behaviorist, totally attributed human learning to behavioral response, and neglected advanced human learning, rejected the study of human internal psychological activities, ignored human subjective initiative, and regarded learners as passive controllers.

Rogers emphasizes respect for students and recognizes that each student is a unique individual who must be respected. Emphasis on cultivating students' positive self-consciousness and self-concept; It emphasizes students' participation in the decision-making process of education, and allows students to have more freedom of independent learning. Emphasize the importance of learning to learn and teachers to be the facilitator of learning. These ideas have become generally accepted principles, affecting today's school education practice. But he the role of the one-sided emphasis on students' potential, and in spite of the social people, excessive emphasis on the students' central position, make the teaching is not constrained by properly meet the students' interest in personal initiative and interest, excessive emphasis on the students' self evaluation, ignored the teaching effect objectively examine, ignore the teaching content of inner logic and leading role of teachers in the teaching, it is bound to affect the quality of the education teaching.

To sum up, the two big education theories are not perfect, each has its own advantages and disadvantages. This requires us to draw on the strengths of their respective theories in our current teaching reform, discard their respective narrowness and limitation, and better guide our teaching.

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