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北美作业代写:grammaticalization

2018-08-02 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- grammaticalization,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了语法化。语法化是对语法形式的研究,无论对语法形式如何定义,都将其视为经过某种处理的实体。语法化有许多实践者,且在不同时期处于语言学的中心或边缘位置。二十世纪八十年代,许多语言学家都将语法化研究置于非常重要的地位。

grammaticalization,语法化,essay代写,作业代写,代写

Grammaticalization is the study of grammatical form. No matter how it is defined, it is regarded as a processed entity rather than a static object. Grammaticalization has many practitioners and is at the center or edge of linguistics at different times. In this chapter, we will briefly examine the thinking of some major symbols in the early studies of grammaticalization, as well as some contemporary linguists who are interested in the branch of the discipline. The most complete history of grammaticalization is found in the writings of c. Lehmann and Heine, Claudi and Hunnemeyer.

The term "grammaticalization" was apparently coined by Antoine Meillet, a French linguist. Meillet is an indo-european linguist who studied under saussure. The definition of Meillet is well known: "the conversion of autonomous words to grammatical components". But Meillet's idea of the origins of grammatical forms came later than an earlier speculation about the evolution of human language.

Perhaps the most complex speculation about the origins of grammar comes from the German philosopher and humanist Wilhelm von Humboldt. In 1822, he gave a speech on the origin of grammatical form and its effect on the flow of ideas. He believed that the grammatical structure of human language existed before the emergence of language evolution stage, at which only specific concepts could be expressed. He also says that grammar has gone through a phase of explicit matching of specific concepts in order to evolve.

After the publication of Meillet's works in the first two decades of the 20th century, the problem of grammaticalization was mainly studied by linguists of indo-european languages. However, many scholars who regard themselves as historical linguists do not care about grammaticalization as a branch of discipline or research subject. This term is often ignored in the diachronic and synchronic linguistics of the period. In fact, the tradition of "forgetfulness" by c.l. ehmann on grammaticalization continues to this day, because the word is not found in Hock's principles of historical linguistics or in language textbooks by Finegan and Besnier.

The tendency of "mainstream" linguists to study synchronic in their methods and assumptions means that historical factors, including grammaticalization, are secondary interests. Language change is regarded as a set of regulative adjustment, starting from one stage and ending from another, and the gradual process in the middle is difficult to arouse people's interest: "change is treated as the description of changes caused by regular changes in the synchronic stage, which is divorced from the change itself". Linguists such as Kurylowicz and Calvert Watkins, among others, have made the only significant studies on grammaticalization at this stage, studying content beyond the mainstream theoretical paradigm. Unfortunately, their work has barely been read by other indo-european linguists. In particular, Emile Benveniste, a student of Meillet, argued in his 1968 book "grammatical category mutations" that it was necessary to repeat Meillet1912's study of the grammaticalization of auxiliary verbs that produced self-explanatory verbs, such as "have, hold". Benveniste coined the term "auxiliary verbs" to describe the process. Although he USES some examples of Meillet, he does not explicitly refer to Meillet's work or use the term "grammaticalization" or similar words in this work.

In the 1980s, many linguists put the study of grammaticalization in a very important position. As mentioned above, Bybee's massive morphological research project has been influential. Relevant studies will be discussed in the following sections. Here we will refer to two important treatises of the early period of this era: thoughts on grammaticalization: a programmatic summary by c.l. ehmann, the first modern work to emphasize the study of sustainability, which investigated the important works on grammaticalization of the period up to that time and emphasized the relevant studies of historical linguistics. Although the book was published as a research paper for the cologne universalism project, it offers a detailed and historical antidote to "forgetfulness" - a symptom that has plagued previous linguists, most of whom even believe that the field is new. The second book worth mentioning is "grammaticalization and reanalysis of African languages" by Heine and Reh. This is probably the first book to study the whole field of language synchronically from the perspective of grammaticalization. This work classifies the phenomena discussed through detailed case studies, and lists in detail the authors' typical research methods of grammaticalization, especially those related to morpheme syntax and morpheme phonology. Needless to say, these phenomena are not confined to Africa; The same is true in other parts of the world. The works of Heine and Reh strongly prove the validity of grammaticalization theory as a tool of descriptive linguistics, especially the extensive linguistic facts that grammaticalization can describe. Both of these books are indispensable to the establishment of the theory of grammaticalization.

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