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留学生作业代写:The trust between the mainstream media and the public is broken

2017-09-11 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- The trust between the mainstream media and the public is broken,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了主流媒体与民众的信任破裂。美国是现代新闻业的摇篮,而新闻业也向来是美国向外展示其民主制度优越性的样板,但在2016年美国大选却出现了许多问题。其中最引人注目的就是美国主流媒体在选战阵营上的一边倒及其最后的失败。

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It is no exaggeration to say that the 2016 United States election was not only a war between an institution and an outsider, but also a war between the press and Trump. As the election has just ended, "media failure" has become a key word for public opinion. "The political identity of the American election has been broken down into two curses and confrontations, one by the Trump faction and one by the media," said the famous journalist Michael, a widely reproduced essay. The Los Angeles Times commentary is more historical: "From the 2003 Iraq War to the 2008 financial crisis, to today's Trump victory, the media has gone into a dead end, 3 strikes in 13 years, the U.S. press is experiencing a huge systemic setback."

The United States is the cradle of modern journalism, and journalism has always been the model for the United States to show its superiority in democratic system. In the last hundred years of development process, the mainstream media knowledge elite has been playing the vanguard of the cause of progress and the representative of the masses. It is in this sense that the crisis facing the American press today is not a simple industry crisis, but a cultural consensus crisis and a political crisis.

The crisis is unfolding with a variety of phenomena and problems, the most notable of which is the one-sided and final defeat of the mainstream American media in the campaign. This phenomenon cannot be understood simply from the biased perspective of the media, but rather shows the high degree of convergence between the mainstream media and the American political establishment. UCSB's analysis of 100 U.S. media election reports found that 57 of the Washington Post's New York Times, among others, explicitly supported Democratic candidate Hillary Clinton, while the media that supported Trump was only 2. Apart from the statistics, we can easily tell from experience that the two presidential candidates are treated differently in the media circle. The serious national media, in particular, have shown striking uniformity in condemning Trump and his supporters. The idea of viewing the media as an independent functional branch of a democratic society clearly fails to explain the highly politicized and homogeneous position of such reports.

Interestingly, the media elite, though not like Trump, gave him enough exposure. The findings of the Tyndall Media report show that in a total of 1000 minutes of nationwide television news election coverage during the party primaries in 2015, Trump gained 327 minutes of exposure, far ahead of other candidates. The Democratic candidate, who dwarfs Mr Saunders, a left-wing progressive, has received 20 minutes of attention, less than Trump's 1/16. Many media people blame themselves for this, the one-sided pursuit of ratings not only enhance Trump's attention, but also save him a lot of advertising costs.

Thus, for the American press, the political consciousness of the formed faction and the motive of the media to seek commercial profits become a pair of awkward contradictions. If Trump's campaign succeeds in exploiting this paradox, Saunders, from political advocacy to the ability to make topics difficult to be accepted by mainstream media, can only be squeezed out of the spotlight. In fact, it is the Democratic candidate who has brought the problem of poverty, redistribution, and so on to a long period of institutional neglect and cover-up into the campaign, and he has made a lot of efforts to do so in the mass media to become a public topic.

The media elites turned a deaf ear to the deep-rooted social problems of the existing system, which eventually led to their abandonment by the grassroots. According to the Pew Research Center's latest statistics, only 18% of the current U.S. public trust in the media, while the American News Institute's findings are even more serious, the Media Trust index is only 6%. In the 2016, the humiliating plight of the Western press was shown in dramatic fashion by Britain's European and American elections. Despite the irony, ridicule and attack of the mainstream media on the European and Trump supporters, the final election results have all declared their influence weak.

In European and American society, the breakup of the trust relationship between the media and the public is a historical dynamic process. Since the end of 20th century, along with the new liberalism reform tide, "the Media Fair standard" and the media monopoly barrier has been discarded successively, the media industry's commercial potential has been released massively, but its public service attribute gradually has fallen to the bottom. The demand for the efficient exploitation and utilization of attention resources has replaced the service public and promoted the function of democracy as the primary criterion in the field of communication. This has not only largely killed the social responsibility consciousness of the press, has brought about the politicization of the public life, but also laid the groundwork for the industrial ecological change of the whole media industry.

In the process of this round of commercialization and media capital integration, the "press freedom", a classic value label, continues to fade, not only to provide protection for the diversity of opinion, but to dissolve all kinds of public restraints. Using the vague concept of freedom of speech in the First Amendment of the Constitution, media groups confuse the individual freedom of the subject consciousness with the freedom of the company's business conduct, thus finding a golden signboard for their market expansion.

Today, through a round of mergers and acquisitions, the most influential news media in the United States are in the hands of a handful of media conglomerates. These monopolies, which are themselves beneficiaries of global market expansion, are also strong supporters of globalization. At the same time, the transnational asset elites of globalization and the knowledge of the business world-class culture have become the most popular target audience for mainstream media. These people are jina in Western societies that are highly reliant on global markets and live in a world of highly affluent global cities. The division of mass media to the audience according to the value of commodity has brought about the integration of the media elites and the globalization system. It also brings the systematic detachment between the people in the life experience, the value idea, the esthetic taste and so on. This situation culminated in the creation of two isolated and even mutually antagonistic cultural spaces in the same Republican regime. "Freedom of the press" has therefore become the social elite's exclusive freedom, has become the public opinion imprison.

The reality of high monopoly of communication resources makes the autonomous space of news professional group become more and more tiny. Formed politician, media group and global capital elites have been combined into a highly correlated community, and the instrumental attribute of the mainstream public opinion mechanism can no longer be concealed by the empty fig leaf of "press freedom", meanwhile, the plight of the grassroots labor groups in the American society in the globalized market, Cannot be effectively expressed in the field of communication, and their spontaneous actions often suffer from the taunts of the media elite. In short, after more than 30 years from the dissemination of content to the commercialization of industrial structure transformation, the news media, the Western Social Democratic Republic ideals and freedom of expression of the pillars have lost the ability to respond to social concerns, increasingly degenerated into a global system of propaganda tools, and ultimately lost the trust of the American bottom people.

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