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美国作业代写:The Future of Pop Cultures in East Asia

2017-06-22 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- The Future of Pop Cultures in East Asia,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了东亚流行文化的未来。在过去的几十年里,文化融合一直被认为是一种主要的推动力,它同化了大部分的文化。然而,目前东亚流行文化已经颠覆了这种传统思维方式,特别是在城市,已经重新确立了融合过程中更加多元化、繁荣的文化环境,同时又保持了自身鲜明的特色。另一方面,东亚各国也在融合的过程中保留或重新确立了自己的特色。

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Introduction

Thanks to rapid economic growth, flexible political policy and prosperous urban development, East Asia has achieved a remarkable and unprecedented cultural resurgence in the past two decades. Nowadays, it is widely common to see young Chinese enjoys reading a Japanese detective cartoon, while listening to South Korean’s pop music at the same time. The dramatic development of East Asia’s pop cultures has not only influenced consumers beyond national and boundaries in recent years, but also inspired governmental policy-making and economical collaborations which involve large number of open-minded and distinguished personnel from different parts of East Asia, in turn further promoting its popular culture market.

In my opinion, the study of pop cultural development cannot be actualized simply through discussion of its phenomenon but also calls for interdisciplinary method, which should critically comprises its accompanying social, economic and political factors. In the following paragraphs I would suggest that the booming of pop cultures in different countries of East Asia not only drive its overall ideological fusion, but also promote the economical and political connections between nations.

The diversification and fusion

Cultural integration, for some decades, have long been believed to be a chief driving force  which assimilates and even dominates other parts of culture, especially when looking at western culture’s “invasion” in the early period of 20th century. However, the current flow of pop culture in East Asia has overturned this conventional thinking, especially in cities, and re-established the conception of a more pluralistic and prosperous cultural environment in the process of fusion, while concurrently maintaining its own distinctive characters. In recent years, South Korean pop culture, for instance, has emerged as a remarkably cultural phenomenon in East Asia, creating Hallyu, since it is ubiquitously known among fans. Besides, many Japanese cosmic series such as Doraemon and Detective Conan, are ceaselessly broadcast on televisions and widely accessed through Internet those years in East Asia. To simply put, the new generation who were born in 90s or even 21st century are growing up under the accompany of these pop culture.

On the other hand, different nations in East Asia have preserved or re-established its own characteristic in the process of art fusion. This is partly because current consumers are requiring more choices to satisfy their changing appetites and also demand more ways for expressing their unique personality in different phrases of life. “The Chinese comic-book industry (manga) initially absorbed many influences from Japanese manga starting as far back as the 1960s but has recently been developing its own recognizable identity away from the Japanese model” (Berndt 2012).In 1993, when the first Chinese manga magazine was carried out. It included not only  translated version from Japanese but also created its original sections by young innovative Chinese artists. These examples of maintaining its regional uniqueness are not only existential in comic-books, but also common in areas from TV show to drama series.

Despite the fact that dominant western culture continues to have impact on East Asia market, regional pop culture power have also substantially intensified and expanded, decentralizing the world’s cultural structure and establishing its own distinctive yet pluralistic evolving pattern in the future.

Social and political factors in the development of pop cultures

The development of pop culture in East Asia is strongly associated wit its social and political factors. In terms of social sphere, the emergence of a considerable number of middle-class consumers who possess spare time and disposable money, along with the advent of social media, which are easily accessible and spontaneously delivered. play crucial factors in promoting the rapid spread of culture from one area to another. For instance, a lately popular Korean drama named Descendants of the Sun has caught extensive attention since its synchronized releasein South Korea and mainland China, thanks to the highly-developed telecommunication technology and promotion of social media, such as Sina(Chinese version of Twitter) and Wechat. Consequently, as Alder and Greve claimed, the boundaries of regions may be determined by the practices that constitute them, a pattern which Emilian Kavalski calls "community of practice."

Meanwhile, the easing of political control over culture import as part of neoliberal policy has greatly encouraged entrepreneurs and pop culture investors to seek fresh expansion chances beyond their domestic entertainment sphere, which is a historical transform when contrasting conservative cultural policy in the past day. “The South Korean government banned the importation of Japanese popular culture to South Korea between 1978 and 1999 (Morris 2005:12), fearing that Japanese culture products would dominate the Korean cultural scene” (Creighton 4).Nowadays, the political environment for culture dissemination in East Asia has been dramatically open and democratic, which absolutely empowers it with a better development environment and growing space. “At the popular culture level, Hallyu fans in Japan continued to pursue Korean dramas, pop music, and tourism to South Korea, thus suggesting that popular culture has done a better job of promoting positive attitudes and involvements than governmentally orchestrated campaigns.” (Creighton 5). In fact, “examining the actual operations and networks which drive the dissemination and consumption of popular culture not only reveals the bottom-up logic of regionalization but also illuminates the actual practices and processes of regionalism” (Otmazgin 2). As a result, as long as the values promoted by these imported cultures did not affect the root of regime power, its future development will not be obstructed based on its growing tendency.

Commercial benefits brought by the development of pop cultures

There is no doubt that cultural industry’s development is closely associated with commercial profits. After all, the entertainment corporations are established to chase values, material possessions, to be specific.

On the individual level, popular culture consumerism has become part of life for a special portion of population---young urban dwellings with an instantly improved standard of living and taste. In their mind, the spending of pop culture was not merely a consumption of life necessity, but more importantly a way of enjoyment and investment in the wider social and mental sense. Meanwhile, pop culture establishes a network with other people who also favors similar interests and lifestyle.

On the state level, pop culture plays a significant role in contributing to national economy and is, in turn promoted by economic boost. To illustrate, let’s take Chinese popular culture as an example. A growing number of Chinese music, TV drama and even reality show have not only been flourished in Mainland China but also exported to the rest of East Asia. China’s economic connections with other parts of East Asia supply the foundation of the wide spread of Chinese popular culture. In turn, the acceptance from Asian audiences encourage the Chinese entertainment industry to consider beyond their limited domestic market. Put differently, these developments encourage policy-makers in economy department to think beyond its limited domestic demand but brainstorm and include foreign audience as an integral part of their popular culture community.

Conclusion

In summary, through creating a transnational market, the inflow and practice of popular culture play a crucial and constructive role in shaping East Asian consumers’ lifestyle, concept and social ideology. What’s more, with the consideration of social, political and economical factors, it is without doubt that the development of pop culture in East Asia will be more prosperous and pluralistic under the worldwide globalization trend.

Works Cited

1. Nissim Otmazgin, "A New Cultural Geography of East Asia: Imagining A 'Region' through Popular Culture."The Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus. Web. 30 Apr. 2016.

2. Steger, Manfred B. Globalization: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2003. Print.

3. Millie Creighton, "Through the Korean Wave Looking Glass: Gender, Consumerism, Transnationalism, Tourism Reflecting Japan-Korea Relations in Global East Asia."The Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus. Web. 01 May 2016.

4. Berndt, Jaqueline (ed). 2012. Mahwa, Manga, Manhua: East Asian Comic Studies. Leipziger Universitatsverlag.

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