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美国作业代写:TransCanada Pipe-line Decision

2017-06-20 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- TransCanada Pipe-line Decision,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了横加公司的管线决策。横加公司成立于1951年,是北美地区一家拥有五十年历史的能源公司和天然气输送公司,是北美地区第一家独立从事电力生产的企业,业务主要分为三个部分:天然气输送、能源和天然气销售。横加公司拥有长达38000公里的管线,可以将西加拿大与主要的加拿大和美国市场连接在一起。横加公司将加拿大大约70%的天然气产品输送到市场,其中约有60%供给美国市场。

TransCanada,横加公司,留学生作业代写,essay代写,美国作业代写

TransCanada was founded in 1951, is a North American region has a 50-year history of energy companies and gas transmission companies, which is the first company involved with the independent power production in North America. The business of the TransCanada is divided into three parts: natural gas transportation, energy and natural gas sales. TransCanada has about 38,000 km (23,600 miles) pipelines, can connect the West Canada with the main Canadian and the American markets together. TransCanada will transport about 70% of Canada's natural gas products to the market, of which about 60% of the supply to the US market. TransCanada is a leader in North America's natural gas sales market. TransCanada provides a comprehensive suite of energy management services which help customers manage their day-to-day energy needs to improve operational efficiency, and to identify and capitalize on cost-cutting opportunities.

The project of the Keystone XL Pipeline was aimed to become an essential infrastructure project due to the requirement of the energy security in the United States as well as to strengthen the American economy as well. There are not only some advantages but also some disadvantages. On the one hand, some people support this decision, because they think the project can strengthen the power security. On the other hand, other people argue that it may result in some environmental pollution.

Ⅰ.Introduction

1.1  Background Information

With more than 65 years' experience, TransCanada tends to be viewed as the leader in the industry of North American energy infrastructure, in which the main business operation includes several aspects such as natural gas, liquids energy pipelines and power generation equipments as well as gas saving facilities. During a long period, TransCanada focuses itself on developing a company that  involved all of its partners with certain interests (maybe they are from different posts like customers, suppliers, investors, lenders, regulators or employees), and able to contribute to determine the right selections and do the correct things. That means that, there is a healthy kind of business culture with the TransCanada. Meanwhile, their corporate values focus particularly on the Collaboration, Integrity, Responsibility, and Innovation, which provide the firm with a detailed guide to operate the daily business. Specifically, both their business culture and corporate value could have a wide range of informative implications, which is shown as followings:

•We obey the related legal rulers and applicable corporate guidelines in our daily operations;

• We comply with the principles required by the Code of Business Ethics (COBE);

• We report according to some proper internal channels, some actual or suspected instances non-compliance with legal rules or COBE that we understand;

• We do not revenge anyone for the real reporting of an incident, issue or event;

• We call on others to making the right selections and doing the proper things.

Ⅱ.Identify issues

The project was put forward with 1,179-mile (about 1,898 km), 36-inch-diameter crude oil pipeline which started in Alta, and expanding the south of Steele City, Nebby the TransCanada Company. This project was aimed to become an essential infrastructure project due to the requirements of energy security in the United States and in order to strengthen the American economy as well. However, there have been controversial attitudes towards this project since it is proposed. Supporters argue that the project can provide thousands of vacancies jobs for Americans. Besides, it can increase tax to improve the country and their communities, and generate a safe, stable energy source to improve the Americans’ life quality. In addition, opponents believe that it is a highly contested issue since it is involved in the ethics and the environmental damages, land ownership and first nation interest harm if the pipeline project is implemented. After a review of seven years, on November 6, 2015, President Obama refuted the required presidential permission for the project. TransCanada refuted the project by claiming it pursuits some legal actions according to the requirement of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and as well as started up the Constitutional litigation to disagree against the U.S. Administration On January 6th, 2016.TransCanada persists in commenting its options and details concerning the project. Thus, the challenge is how to balance the economic value and ethical issues, which should be considered carefully and rigorously by both the company and the government.

Ⅲ.Trans-Canada’s Action

Different groups of people have worried about the implicated negative impacts onit. Actually, if its oil spills happened

During the implementation of the Keystone XL Pipeline Project, it will be an emergency.

The Keystone Pipeline has been regarded as the "routine" by the TransCanada, CEO Russ Girling, and the company has been operating alike pipelines in North of the U.S for nearly 500 years and there are 200,000 miles (320,000 km)similar oil pipelines in the United States today. It also claimed that the project will contain many improvements about standard requirements requested by U.S. regulators, changing it to "the safest pipeline project”. Moreover, "This is the most advanced pipeline project than ever put forward before." from Rep. Ed Whitfield, a member of the House Committee on Energy and Commerce concurred .Although Anthony Swift of the Natural Resources Defence Council affirmed that except some 57situationsjust retell the moment related minimum standards, It states that they will be completely responsible for any social problems. By searching their website, they said “It’s our responsibility to become a law – abiding company. If anything occurs on the Pipeline, our rapid response is the window to solve it. That’s reason that the state and federal agencies approve our Emergency Response plans, and why we display and operate them carefully and fluently. We make frequentaid exercises, and collect some aerial surveys every two weeks. We’re competent to respond with a highly-qualified group."In addition, TransCanada claimed that it could create an ISDS claim below NAFTA to refute the damages and calling the rejection of a permission for Keystone XL “random and unsatisfied in early January 2016,.

According to central ethical questions, it is necessary to analyze feasibility of the Keystone XL project according to central ethical questions from three main aspects, which are equity, right and practical respectively.

3.1 Equity

If the project is put into action, it would make some destroys in many ecologically important areas, such as grasslands in Montana, South Dakota, and Nebraska. Meanwhile, the equipment used during construction would affect the air quality and cause harm to many animals living in these areas. This will result in habitat loss that will eventually upset the ecosystem. It is estimated that there are 23 species protected by the Endangered Species Act in the areas of proposed construction and approximately 10 of them will be severely affected. Therefore, it is not equitable for those who live in the along the line of the Keystone XL project including all of those residences ,cities and countries as they may suffer from environmental hazards.

3.2 Right

It is also obvious that the pipeline is hazardous to human health. Based on the plan of construction, the pipeline would run straight through the Ogallala Aquifer, a major source of drinking water as well as the irrigation across the country. If the pipeline leaks something harmful anywhere near the aquifer area, a majority of the native water supply would be polluted. Furthermore, the pipeline for transporting crude-oil contains more amounts of harmful factors for the health of human lungs compared with oil imported from other countries. For example, the overmuch sulfur and present could contribute to lung diseases, asthma, and cancer. Based on the requirements of the Natural Resources Defense Council, the Keystone XL pipeline is more possible to break down than any other pipelines in the world due to the bitumen mixture with extra corrosive. As everyone knows, living is a basic right for our human beings; implementing project which is fulfilled with pollution problems of course is a wrong thing when taking consideration from ethics and law.

3.3 Practical

The idea of spills and leaks should be a major reason for being careful. Although Trans-Canada states that they will be completely responsible for any potential environmental problems and its rapid emergency response plans are practicable regularly because of approve by state and federal agencies, this is not the real case. In 2010, the TransCanada Company’s first line of safety is identical to the technology that unjustified quitting an oil spill in Michigan. Additionally, even though it was improved, 2% daily volume of the pipeline(approximately 8,300 buckets) still would probably leak. It is estimated that the maximum spill volume of the pipeline would be roughly 2.8 million gallons. This would be a concern because spills and leaks through the pipeline will most likely be in areas where there is abundance of wildlife.

Ⅳ.Ethical Reflection

From the problem and action plan analysis above, it is clear that the Keystone XL project proposed by the TransCanada Company will harm environment adversely due to potential oil spills and increased carbon emissions, which is obviously not beneficial in ethics. Those problems apparently show the reflection of unfairness from four main aspects.

4.1 Human rights

First of all, it violates the Human rights. It is a plain fact that everyone has the right to live in an environment without life-threatening. In this specific scenario, however, the design of the pipeline would go against the first fundamental requirement of the NSPE code of ethics for engineers, which claims that all Engineers should “keep paramount the safety, health, and benefit of the public.”

Also, it challenges the priority of people. That means that, human being’s feeling should be considered at first. By not speaking up when a discrepancy in the design was found, Trans-Canada is sacrificing the environment, and therefore the local people are being placed at risk. In fact, companies should put human rights and interests in the first consideration when design and develop a new project.

4.2 Virtue

The moral imperative is to act in a manner that is consistent with what is good, right and just. Obviously, pollution itself is not a good and right behavior and wide life. Some environmentalists now consider it the time to “remove talk of animal obligation of the moral aspect as well as focus on less universalistic moral concepts including some qualities such as respect and so on”. Obviously, Trans-Canada pipeline’s plan may violet the principle of "new" environmental virtues if it cannot avoid pollution in the implementation.

4.3 Utility

It could be unintentional aftermaths to the project. As an example, the extra north-south crude oil transport containment carried by Keystone XL is able to increase the price of the gras and oil. There is beneficial to develop the industry in Alberta. In return, according to the real conditon of the Canadian currency the same additional income can build up the Canadian dollar versus the United States dollar. This will finally attain a good influence on production industry. However, we will confront with running out of resources in the long run which is not beneficial to economy growth and the utilities will decrease dramatically. Hence, how to balance short-term and long-term benefits is a big challenge for the project design.

4.4 Law

It is obvious that environment destruction, especially those of life-threatening event like potential oil spills disobeys the law rules to some extent. The actions of pollution prevention concentrated on many aspects such as industry and government, attracted public attention on deadline the pollution by effective changes in the use of production, operation, and raw. In the project of the Pipeline, the main events are the potential risk of oil spills along the pipeline, which would wide highly sensitive terrain, and 17% higher greenhouse gas emissions from the oil sands compared with extraction oil. Hence, nowadays no business can survive if it neglects environment protection in a long run.

Sometimes when faced with a difficult decision, it is helpful to take a look back and consider what other successful companies or people did when faced with a similar decision. For instance, Carried by the ex-Google and PayPal executives, the purpose of the Tesla Motors is to prove that automobile can be economically keenly without sacrificing the blazing the speed and power. A research showed that their website reveals a tantalizing glimpse of what’s ahead from its electric charge. The cost of working this machine? DuPont is another company that has put forward the ire of green advocates for many years. But it seems that they are taking struggles to maintain ability operations. Except for the artistically lowering its emissions of airborne carcinogens and greenhouse gases, DuPont has regarded as the ex-Greenpeace head which becomes an adviser to the board. According to its word, the company succeeded in making deadline of the greenhouse gas emissions from the 90’s to 63% – which is a long distance to the standard of the project.

Implementation of the pipeline is in fact profitable for the Nation’s oil industry but should the environment and public well-being be sacrificed? Before making a decision, one must be educated about the circumstances and make a balance between short-term and long-term benefits.

Figure 1: Ethical Framework for Trans-Canada pipe-line Decision

Ⅴ.Conclusion

Canada is the second largest country in the world and one of the top five largest energy producers as well. Actually, the transmission pipeline system of Canada expands about 115,000 kilometers! There is no doubt that Canadian operators use a large number of systems and these technologies to ensure them working safely as well as stable. The managers should take the responsibility to meet the energy needs for the most Canadians, including the safe shipment of natural gas and crude oil productions by well-developed pipe projects..

References

1. Bad Judgment: The Case of Justice Leo A. Landreville, William Kaplan, 1996.

2. "History of Pipeline” Archived from the origin on 4 May 2009. Retrieved 7 December 2009.

3. Pipeline rupture report raises questions about TransCanada, CBC, February 4, 2014, Amber Hildebrand. Retrieved 15 May 2015.

4. "Trans-Canada Pipe Lines Limited". Retrieved 7 December 2009.

5. "Trans-Canada Pipeline: Feat and fury". The Days Before Yesterday. CBC Television. 16 December 1973. Retrieved 2009-04-16.

6. "Explosion rocks TransCanada pipeline in Ontario". Calgaryherald. Archived from the original on 18 September 2009. Retrieved 7 December 2009.

7. "REGIONAL: Pipeline explosion near Engelhard". Retrieved 7 December 2009.

8. "Northern Ontario pipeline explodes". CBC News. 20 February 2011.

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