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留学生作业代写:The Health Care System in China VS the Health Care System in USA

2017-06-16 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- The Health Care System in China VS the Health Care System in USA,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了中美两国的医疗保健制度。中国在医疗保健和药物方面有着悠久的历史,其中最辉煌的一项就是中医。使用独特的治疗原理,不同于现代西方理论,中国传统医学曾经被认为是最顶尖的,目前仍在应用之中。目前的中国医疗保健系统被认为更像是一个资本主义的,并已转化为自由市场体系。与美国的医疗保健体系相比,中国的体系是一个典型的资本主义体系,它的成熟度和完备程度并不相同。

Health Care System,医疗保健制度,留学生作业代写,essay代写,美国作业代写

China is a developing country with a large population, who bears resemblance with the United States in that they are both expanding in an amazing speed but is also explicitly distinguished from the United States in the social merchandise. China has formed a systematic health care structure. Considering the great population of China and the gradually higher influence China had in the global occasion, the Chinese health care system is something that worth looking through.

China processes a long history in health care and medicaments, among which the most brilliant one to be the traditional Chinese medical science. Using unique therapeutic principles that differs a lot from the modern western theory, the traditional Chinese medical science was once considered one of the top and is still under application. However, the western way is also used widely in China. In this way, the Chinese processes two type (sometimes even more than two types) of medical treatment. Since the establishment of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, the government has made great effort in reforming the health care system. The facilities and the staffs as well as the health care standard had been greatly improved and expanded. Though in the year 1996, “President Jiang Zemin emphasized the importance of the country's health in relation to its economic and socialist development and urged the people to create a competent health care workforce,” (Health Care in China, 2016) the current Chinese health care system is considered to be more like a capitalistic one and have been transformed into a free market system. When compared to the US health care system, which is supposed to be a topical capitalistic system, the Chinese system is not in the same level of maturity and complete.

There are two types of Basic Medical Insurance in China, however, the main idea of the distinguishes in the medical insurance lays on the geographic distribution. This was designed for the aim to build up a health system affordable for both urban and rural residents.  Thus the medical insurance are divided into the Urban Employees’ Basic Medical Insurance, the Urban Residents Basic Medical Insurance, and the New Rural Cooperative Medical Insurance. Among those three, the first insurance is pay by the employees and their employers and is redirected paid to the insurance from their monthly salary. The State Council suggested that the employers’ contribution be 6% of the employee’s salary and the employees’ percentage be 2%. This expanse cover the covers outpatient and emergency services and drug expenses, the in patient services is also included. The Urban Residents Basic Medical Insurance “is to provide coverage for urban residents without formal employment with the intention of eliminating impoverishment resulting from chronic or fatal diseases, which can lead to catastrophic medical expenditures” (Health Care in China, 2016) and it is purchased freely. The last one was formed due to the large uncoverage of the health insurance in the rural area. The NRCM “provides partial coverage for all kinds of medical expenses, excluding some outpatient expenses and drug expenses” (Health Care in China, 2016) based on the residents’ voluntary.

In the United States, there are two main types of the health care plan, the medical service for the elderly and the medical service for the poor. The insurance of the nation includes Employer-funded health insurance, military veterans, and state children’s health insurance. However, the health care system is commonly recognized as a market-based health insurance system. The health care insurance is not provided to everyone in the country, individuals have their choice to decide whether to but such insurance based on multiple reasons, most important of which is considered as the affordability. Around 84.7% of Americans have some form of health insurance (Major Causes of Death among Men and Women in China, 2016), and the insurance provides individual health care personnel, health care facilities and medical products. The contents may share commons with that of China’s, but actually under a different structure of the health care and hospital system, those two countries’ insurance are clearly distinguished from each other on how the medical treatment expense is saved and whether the people can be taken care of when they get older.

What’s more, the way patient get treated is quite different from that in American. For most of the time people go to hospitals for a visit instead of the doctor visits the patients, which personally speaking, much too crowded and there is always lines to que. The doctors are not efficient for the large numbers of patients, and they seems always stressful and tired. And that the payment for doctors is not fair at all.” Junior doctors at public hospitals in major cities, like Shanghai, earn about 3,000 yuan ($450 US dollars) a month in their first few years, while experienced doctors in their 40s are paid less than 10,000 yuan," according to the South China Morning Post. “To put this in global comparative terms, a regular U.S. doctor probably earns more in one working day than a Chinese doctor earns in an entire month. The disparity could be explained through the differences between the qualities of medical care offered, but if China does transform into the world's largest economy, then the country should improve its medical care services and boost salaries for doctors and nurses.” (The Chinese Healthcare System: How It Works and Future Trends, 2016) But the public hospitals are indeed well financed. The government has clearly outlined the scheme as an important part in the Chinese “12th five years”. Compared with the hospitals and doctor system in the United States, the Chinese way can be hardly recognized as a mature system. But from my point of view, this is due to the large population in China. As a fact of the truth, the treatment is in demand but there is definitely no such great number of doctor. Not to mention if they are turned into private or family doctors.

In the United States, the private doctors give suggestions or prescribe, people without a private doctor or when the private doctor cannot treat the disease, they go to clinic or physicians. There are non-profit hospitals established and financed by government and other organizations, and there are also hundreds of insurance companies in the United States.

According to a research conducted in the year 2012, it is said that “China’s government insurance programs have extended coverage to more than 95 percent of the population. Coverage remains basic, however. One-third of the country’s provinces, for example, still do not provide universal outpatient coverage in basic medical insurance. Of those that do, the coverage provided is limited—in Shanghai, outpatients are responsible for 30 to 50 percent copayments and a $240 deductible. Patients’ out-of-pocket expenses remain high overall as a result of strict reimbursement caps and low or no reimbursement for expensive drugs.”(Health care in China, 2012)This is a mark of the gap in the Chinese society resulting from the swiftly developed commerce, the business activities depart the country and the city apart and the gap grows deeper. The poverty mainly occurs in the country, where people barely afford the expense for a visit in the hospital. What’s more, the medical facilities in the country are not averagely located, patients from countries may travel for hours to go to the public hospitals, which may somehow costs more expense and adds danger to the illness for the patients. while the situation in the city turn out to be quite the same—expensive for the ordinary people (people with insurance do not need to pay the full price, the insurance still has capability to give a discount on the initial price), even rich people who have enough money need to wait for a long time for the expert doctors. Moreover, the choice for the patients is usually limited within the choice of the hospital, otherwise they cannot choose the way of diagnose, and all the procedures in the hospitals are fixed.

On this point of view, the coverage of the health care insurance coverage in the United States is also something that needs to be worried about. The U.S. Census Bureau estimated that 15.3% of the total population are out of the enrollment of the health insurance by the year 2007. This is a controversial topic as some have argued it as the basic human right, and in some of the states in he America like California, there is insurance for children in low-income families. However, the problems of the gap between the countryside and the city is not as serious as that in China. Critics are frequently shown on the newspaper blaming the impracticality of the affordability and the lack of the medical facilities and equipment in some particular areas, but when it is compared to China, it may not be a problem anymore.

Though the health care system in China can hardly compared to the developed one in America, but considering the developing and economic situation and its large population in China, it is much better than the former situation before the revolution. After the revolution had been put into use, China had lowered its infant mortality rate from 200 to 31 deaths per 1000 live births and raised life expectancy from 35 years to 70 years. This is definitely a huge step in the progress of the improvement of the civils’ living quality. Due to a search of the last year, the most common reasons of death occur in China are vascular disease and cancer, malignant neoplasms, diseases of the heart, cerebrovascular disease and accidents.(China's Doctors Worthy Of Higher Pay, 2016)And about 1,239,191 people die each year, the crude death rate in china is measured 7.20 per 1000 people in 2013,(DEATH RATE - CRUDE (PER 1;000 PEOPLE) IN CHINA, 2016) while the statistic for America is 8.30 per 1000 in the same year. But people die differently in this two countries. There are respectively 28.5% and 22.8% percent of the death caused by heart disease and cancer, which turned out to be similar to that in China, but the number of people in the America who died of alcoholism is much larger than that in China, the alcohol (CAUSES OF DEATH, 2016). The infantmortality rate keeps its level on at about six per 1,000 live births (America's real infant-mortality problem, 2016). It seems easy to draw a conclusion that the American enjoy a better life than the Chinese, but the life expectancy of American is not as high as that of the Chinese, bit people may argue it is because of the high criminal rate in America, and it is indeed a matter of the fact that the accidents and injuries claim more death in the United States, which may excuse the US health care system from discussion.

References

Alberto Forchielli. (2015). The Chinese Healthcare System: How It Works And Future Trends. [online] Available at: http://www.albertoforchielli.com/2015/11/13/the-chinese-healthcare-system-how-it-works-and-future-trends/ [Accessed 18 Nov. 2016].

Benbest.com. (2016). CAUSES OF DEATH. [online] Available at: http://www.benbest.com/lifeext/causes.html [Accessed 18 Nov. 2016].

Dixon, L. and Dixon, L. (2016). Health Care in China | eHow. [online] eHow. Available at: http://www.ehow.com/about_4884969_health-care-china.html [Accessed 18 Nov. 2016].

English.cri.cn. (2016). China's Doctors Worthy Of Higher Pay. [online] Available at: http://english.cri.cn/6909/2011/07/25/2743s650260.htm [Accessed 18 Nov. 2016].

McKinsey & Company. (2012). Health care in China: Entering uncharted waters. [online] Available at: http://www.mckinsey.com/industries/healthcare-systems-and-services/our-insights/health-care-in-china-entering-uncharted-waters [Accessed 18 Nov. 2016].

Mtholyoke.edu. (2016). Health Care in China. [online] Available at: https://www.mtholyoke.edu/courses/sgabriel/health.htm [Accessed 18 Nov. 2016].

New England Journal of Medicine. (2016). Major Causes of Death among Men and Women in China NEJM. [online] Available at: http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMsa050467 [Accessed 18 Nov. 2016].

Sanghavi, D. (2016). America's real infant-mortality problem.. [online] Slate Magazine. Available at: http://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/medical_examiner/2007/03/baby_gap.html [Accessed 18 Nov. 2016].

Tradingeconomics.com. (2016). DEATH RATE - CRUDE (PER 1;000 PEOPLE) IN CHINA. [online] Available at: http://www.tradingeconomics.com/china/death-rate-crude-per-1-000-people-wb-data.html [Accessed 18 Nov. 2016].

https://www.mtholyoke.edu/courses/sgabriel/health.htm

http://www.ehow.com/about_4884969_health-care-china.html

http://www.albertoforchielli.com/2015/11/13/the-chinese-healthcare-system-how-it-works-and-future-trends/

http://english.cri.cn/6909/2011/07/25/2743s650260.htm

http://www.mckinsey.com/industries/healthcare-systems-and-services/our-insights/health-care-in-china-entering-uncharted-waters

http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMsa050467#t=articleResults

http://www.tradingeconomics.com/china/death-rate-crude-per-1-000-people-wb-data.html

http://www.benbest.com/lifeext/causes.html

http://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/medical_examiner/2007/03/baby_gap.html

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