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美国作业代写:The King of the Railroad

2017-06-09 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- The King of the Railroad,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了铁路大亨范德比尔特。科尼利尔斯·范德比尔特,绰号为“船长”,出生于纽约斯坦顿岛。在19世纪末20世纪初的“镀金年代”,范德比尔特无疑是亿万富翁的代表之一。他是著名的航运、铁路、金融巨头,美国史上第二大富豪,身家远超过比尔·盖茨,也是电脑游戏《铁路大亨》的原型人物。

Cornelius Vanderbilt,范德比尔特,留学生作业代写,essay代写,美国作业代写

When I saw the title for the first sight, a man who came into my mind was Cornelius Vanderbilt, the king of the railway. I was totally impressed by his superior insight, decisiveness and resolution. Anyway, there are many personalities I should learn from him.

He was born in 1794. And at sixteen, he began to yearn for starting his own business. At that time, the main transportation in New York Harbor was sail barge. According to the data I found, the biggest sail barge was up to 18 meters long and 7 meters wide, with enough space to load the cargo. Therefore, the sail barges could sail on New York water area freely. Prior to the advent of mass rail transport, large-scale material transport in North America heavily relied on waterways. These early big cities, like New York, Philadelphia, Boston, are both the hub positions of inland shipping and ocean shipping. In these cities, the shipping industry was one of the industries that people were most keened to invest at that time. Although the rate of return was high, the competition was intense.

Living beside New York Harbor, his family environment made him get in touch with the shipping industry at a young age and he was deeply influenced by the crossing sea business.

His first decision was to borrow 100 dollars from his mother to start his own business. Since then, he began to take up the passenger and cargo transport business between the Staten Island and Manhattan. After the first shipping season, he not only paid off his mother's loan, but also gave her 1000 dollars in return, which is the beginning of the success of Vanderbilt’s career. Vanderbilt worked longer hours than anyone else, and his sense of competition was also stronger than his peers. In 1812, the United States started the Second Independence War. And Cornelius helped the fortress by transporting the military supplies, which made his career soar to a high level.

During his seven years in the shipping business, he succeeded in establishing a fleet of considerable size. In 1817, the 23-year-old Cornelius not only had several ships worth more than seven thousand dollars, but also accumulated nine thousand dollars in cash. Although not rich in nation, he was considered a very rich man between his peers.

He was always concerned about any changes and opportunities in the world and soon saw his future in these ships. The first industrial revolution had spread to America, and Vanderbilt was impressed by the steam engine. He made a surprising decision that was very important in his life: to sell all his sail barges, choose to work for Thomas Gibbons, become the captain of a small volume steamer "Stoudinger".

During Vanderbilt's service in Gibbons, the company was involved in a historic legal case. In 1824, the Supreme Court ruled that the State of New York did not have a monopoly right on inland waterways.

For Vanderbilt, the ruling made his future development become possible. This case, known as Gibbons' Opposition to Ogden, is undoubtedly one of the Supreme Court's most important decisions, as it ensures that the US economy is moving towards the common market and guarantees free competition in the shipping industry. Although the concept of "Wall Street" was almost non-existent at that time, Vanderbilt and other business man in the process of pursuit of private interests have unconsciously promoted the development of Wall Street and even the whole country, which is the best example of Adam Smith’s "invisible hand" in real life.

The job gave Cornelius an opportunity to learn more about the new steam boat industry, laying a good foundation for his own steam ship business. In 1828, Cornelius set up a steam boat shipping company in New York area. He was smart and aggressive in the business, and began a fierce price war against his competitor sat all costs, which made him quickly become the dominant force in this industry. After more than 10 years of painstaking efforts, Cornelius had a number of steam vessels of more than 100 ships, making up a huge fleet. In 1849, the discovery of the California gold mine in Europe set off a western gold rush in the United States. Cornelius opened a new steamer route from New York to San Francisco before the railroad crossing the continent, bringing him more than 1 million dollar a year, which was an astronomical figure in that year.

In 1864, the steam ship shipping business was still very profitable. However, his another big decision was to bid farewell to the operation of the shipping industry, joined the rail transport industry, and began to organize the construction of the first railway across the North American.

By looking through the map of the United States, we can see that the Mississippi River, flowing from north to south, separates the eastern and western parts of the North American continent and has weak ability to ship goods to the depths of inland. He realized that the rapid expansion of the railway system will gradually replace the shipping industry to become the core of the United States. Cornelius once again used his shrewd and cold in the Wall Street market, and won a business battle after another, not only obtaining a huge profit, but also taking control the Harlem Railway, Hudson Railway and the New York Central Railway, which of the three makes Cornelius become "the king of railroad" .

As the American historian Henry William Blantz puts it: Due to this mode of transport, goods transport become low-cost and efficient from one place to another in the whole nation. He sold all the boats and dumped them into the railroad. "The ability to develop potential business opportunities is the key to success, and it's the difference that the best leaders have." The Vanderbilt made this precise decision due to his unique and superior vision, thus leaded others one step ahead to find new business highlight, soon becoming the king of the railway.

The fourth decision he had made was to take the opportunity to buy a large number of shares when the stock price fall to the bottom line. By blocking the Albany Bridge, a serious blow came to his competitors, forcing his opponents to sell all the stocks, which made him became the largest giant of US railway. Vanderbilt was seemed as frail in the eyes of his competitors , but with his own wisdom, he defeated the opponents again and again. Yes, “if they want a war, I will give them a war”. He just wanted to win no matter what the price is, and was always winning. Because he believed as long as the win comes, repay will naturally come. It was his attitude that made him suffer a major loss.

Although Vanderbilt already had 40 percent of the country's railways, it was far from satisfying the railroad giant, so he thought of acquiring the Erie Railroad company to consolidated his position. However, the imagination was always good. Vanderbilt's crazy to get it made Erie stock surge. Besides, Vanderbilt's action was exploited as the channel to make a fortune by two young boys. As the employees of Erie, the two boy sprinted the ginseng stock into the market. Each time Vanderbilt purchase one stock ,and the stock was equivalently diluted twice. By this means, the two people obtained Vanderbilt 70 billion dollars (currently equivalent to 100 billion dollars). The failure of this decision brought to Vanderbilt a heavy hit, but awakened the sleeping lion, so he realized that the future development of railways is not the railway infrastructure, but transported new type cargo.

In a period of large-scale use of kerosene, the United States was no longer dark at night, thus this new energy spawned Vanderbilt another ecision-making. He invited Rockefeller, a 27 years old young entrepreneur, who was on his initial stage of oil industry and also on the verge of bankruptcy, to discuss the new plan. After negotiation, Rockefeller agreed to fill Vanderbilt’s train with oil and started buy every refinery in the country. By the time he finished, he owned ninety percent of the oil supply in North America. The Standard Oil company became the first monopoly. Vanderbilt was not willing to see this happen and made alliance with Tom Scott, but the drastically overbuilt railroads lost cargo and money. The economic depression was coming and many railway companies was shut down. The crisis spread to financial industry, which made the share slump. Unfortunately, the king of the railroads ,Cornelius Vanderbilt died at the height of depression and left his empire worth over 100 million dollars to his son, which accounts for 1/87 GDP of the United States .

Throughout Cornelius Vanderbilt’s whole life, from the sail barge to steam boat, from the railroad to oil, from transport to finance, all show the superior vision of the great man, who had developed the steam boat shipping companies and railway enterprises to free capitalism stage to the extremest level and deeply influenced the Wall Street. He witnessed the transformation of American society, he contributed his whole life to improving the productivity of America, and he led America to dominate the world. The power of new technology and new energy are immeasurable, we can never forget what Cornelius Vanderbilt has left to us.

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