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英文论文写作该如何写好前言和结语

2018-03-13 来源: 51due教员组 类别: 写作技巧

前言和结语对于英文论文写作来说其实非常重要,但同学们却没有重视,所以导致他们在写作前沿和结语部分都是草草而过,这也是导致他们拿不到高分的原因之一。前言和结语看似字数最短,但也是最难攻克的两部分。那么英文论文写作该如何写好前言和结语呢?下面就给大家讲解一下。

英文论文写作前言和结语,英文论文前言和结语,essay代写,assignment代写,作业代写

Introduction & Conclusion)

前言的作用是Road Map,告诉读者

- 研究的话题或者事件是什么

- 为何要研究这个话题,即话题重要性

- 文章将如何展开进行讨论

- 如果有论点,还要画龙点睛的再最后指出。

如何写引言?

自问自答:

假设自己是读者,看到标题后脑中立即浮现哪些问题,这些问题即是introduction的思路方向,对于问题的解答自然也就是introduction的内容。

例如论文标题:

Drawing on the Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, discuss the relationship between education and slavery in 19th-century America.

心中产生的问号,例如

- How did white control of education reinforce slavery?

- How did Douglass and other enslaved African Americans view education while they endured slavery?

- And what role did education play in the acquisition of freedom?

- Most importantly, consider the degree to which education was or was not a major force for social change with regard to slavery.

前言后写:

不建议先写引言的原因有二。其一,提笔时容易没有思路,绞尽脑汁浪费时间。其二在写body的过程中容易迸发出新的想法,延伸后可能和当初写的引言大相径庭,因此建议大家将引言最后和结语一起书写。

当然有的学生把引言当作指路标,没有引言就没法进行body的书写。这种情况建议大家只写一个大致的提纲,不要花费过多时间纠结,等body写好后再返工引言。

吸睛:

引言的初级标准是清楚明了,高级标准则是妙趣横生。为此有几个小妙招。

有趣的例子 (An intriguing example)

例如:Douglass writes about a mistress who initially teaches him but then ceases her instruction as she learns more about slavery.

发人深省的引言 (A provocative quotation)

例如:Douglass writes that “education and slavery were incompatible with each other.”

名人警句有时候在学术文章中效果可能不是非常好,这种情况可以使用文献中人物的引经据典。

使人琢磨的情景 (A puzzling scenario)

例如:Frederick Douglass says of slaves that “[N]othing has been left undone to cripple their intellects, darken their minds, debase their moral nature, obliterate all traces of their relationship to mankind; and yet how wonderfully they have sustained the mighty load of a most frightful bondage, under which they have been groaning for centuries!”

忌讳的引言

假大空:

英文写作和国内的散文不同,最忌讳的就是用华丽的辞藻堆砌没有实质内容的虚话,在外国人眼中就是思想匮乏充字数。

反面案例:Slavery was one of the greatest tragedies in American history. There were many different aspects of slavery. Each created different kinds of problems for enslaved people.

重复解释题目:

详细的分析题目是不错的策略,但如果只是替换单词的重复解释,效果会适得其反。还记得老师讲雅思小作文和大作文时,introduction的书写就是用相近词来替换标题中的单词,再把语句结构作调整,说好听了是“应试技巧”,难听了真是误人子弟。

反面案例:

标题:Drawing on the Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, discuss the relationship between education and slavery in 19th-century America.

前言是:The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass discusses the relationship between education and slavery in 19th century America, showing how white control of education reinforced slavery and how Douglass and other enslaved African Americans viewed education while they endured. Moreover, the book discusses the role that education played in the acquisition of freedom. Education was a major force for social change with regard to slavery.

字典定义:

有的同学喜欢把标题中的几个key word摘取出来,逐个做定义解释。Come on,翻字典的活谁都可以干,换点新鲜的?

如果能结合着自己的研究领域,赋予这些key word一些自己的定义理解,或者所找到的文献中的定义理解,那就把所谓的“定义”变得更加有趣。

反面案例:Webster’s dictionary defines slavery as “the state of being a slave,” as “the practice of owning slaves,” and as “a condition of hard work and subjection.”

“Dawn of Man”:

和假大空相似也是中国学生比较偏爱的,喜欢扯人类起源历史,宇宙运转等等。

反面案例:Since the dawn of man, slavery has been a problem in human history.

学生们通常认为范围越大,自己的话题提升的角度就越高。其实事实相反,文章确实要做话题的延伸和升华,方法详见下文结语。

介绍书籍:

小学生的写作手法:列举出这本书的作者、书名、书中文章的内容等基本事实。通常情况,导师对这些著作的客观事实可能了如指掌,况且这些事实不一定全部都和你的论点相关,所以不建议这种写作方法。

反面案例:Frederick Douglass wrote his autobiography, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave, in the 1840s. It was published in 1986 by Penguin Books. In it, he tells the story of his life.

如何写结语?

结语的目的不单纯是重复之前所提到的理论内容,而是对其进行整合,有条理有重点地把文章的想法表达出来。另外结语的出彩处在于你是否能把思想进行升华,即联想应用到更广的范围和知识,突显文章理论研究成果的重要贡献。成功的结语应该使读者感觉有启发、有收获。那么如何写好结语呢?

自问自答:

如果你觉得结语写不出什么新奇的东西,不妨问问自己几个问题,比如“So what?”,“Why should anyone care?”,然后思考这些问题,进行作答。例如

You: Basically, I’m just saying that education was important to Douglass.

Question: So what?

You: Well, it was important because it was a key to him feeling like a free and equal citizen.

Question: Why should anybody care?

You: That’s important because plantation owners tried to keep slaves from being educated so that they could maintain control. When Douglass obtained an education, he undermined that control personally.

扣题:

如果在引言中提到了主论点,可以在结语时再次点题,形成回应。如果在前言中提到了某一情景、某一概念、某一画面等,在结语中都可以做出呼应。

综合:

这里强调的是“Synthesise”而不是“Summarise”。切忌单纯重复body当中的arguments,而是把arguments和example相结合,每个arguments有层次的说清楚,把点连成线。

抛砖引玉:

- 名人警句百用不厌;

- 除此之外还可以提出对研究问题的解决方法和措施,或者提出一些新的问题用于后人的研究。

- 有时候“升华”也能使结语提高一个档次,升华即把讨论延伸到整个研究领域,比如一篇文章讲Virginia Woolf写作风格,最后可以升华到她的写作风格对其他作者或者后期女权运动者的影响。

注意事项:

切忌在结语中第一次提到thesis。有的同学喜欢采用“Sherlock Holmes”的写作方法,即引言中隐晦的暗示要研究的东西,试图吊着读者胃口,然后在结语中公布thesis。这种写法在学术界尤其是大学写作中,稍有拿捏不当分数会就“飞流直下三千尺”。Thesis应该出现在引言中。

切忌在结语中介绍在body中没有出现过的新思想、新论据、新论点等,也不要出现任何数据分析、或者其他不相关信息。

反面案例:In addition to being an educational pioneer, Frederick Douglass provides an interesting case study for masculinity in the American South. He also offers historians an interesting glimpse into slave resistance when he confronts Covey, the overseer. His relationships with female relatives reveal the importance of family in the slave community.

切忌夹杂私人情感或者带有煽动意味的语言,会和之前学术内容不相符。

反面案例:Because of the efforts of fine Americans like Frederick Douglass, countless others have seen the shining beacon of light that is education. His example was a torch that lit the way for others. Frederick Douglass was truly an American hero.

看到这里,同学们应该知道前言和结语在留学生论文中的重要性了吧?

以上就是关于英文论文前沿和结语部分的写作讲解,同学们在以后的写作中一定要注意这俩部分的写作,必须得写好才行。

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