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高分留学生作业范文好词好句赏析

2018-01-12 来源: 51due教员组 类别: 写作技巧

留学生们都知道,一篇英文论文,最基础的东西一定是句子。而一篇高分的英文论文,其句子写得肯定不会差。所以同学们想提升论文质量的话,可以考虑从句子入手。下面就用一篇高分留学生作业范文来给大家赏析一下它的句词。

留学生范文好词好句,留学生作业范文,essay代写,assignment代写,留学生作业代写

Women and economics

The profession’s problem with women could be a problem with economics itself

Economist Print edition | Christmas Specials Dec 19th 2017 | CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS

ECONOMISTS like to see themselves as generators of rational explanations. They scorn fuzzy thinking and beliefs that have no basis in fact; they attack problems with a ruthless logic. Happy as they are to turn this beady gaze on others, though, when it comes to looking at themselves they may be as befogged as anyone else.

先对经济学家这个群体的特征从宏观上进行剖析,以引入本文的主题。

profession

a job that needs a high level of education and training

(需要高等教育和训练的)专业,行业

scorn

the feeling that someone or something is stupid or does not deserve respect

鄙视,蔑视,轻视

fuzzy

unclear or confused

糊涂的,不明确的

ruthless

determined and firm when making unpleasant decisions

(作出令人不快的决定时)坚决的

beady

have/keep your beady eye(s) on sb/sth

to watch someone or something very carefully – used humorously

睁大眼睛看某人/某物(幽默用法)

gaze 凝视

befogged 被困惑的

Take the issue of female representation in their field. Academic economists are overwhelmingly male. According to information from university websites, about 20% of Europe’s senior economists are women. In America, 15% of full professors are women. At Harvard, arguably the most prestigious economics department in the world, the faculty pictures that beam down from the wall feature 43 senior members of the department. Only three are women. Two have tenure.

运用百分比对经济学科领域男女比例进行概述。

overwhelmingly 压倒性的

prestigious

admired as one of the best and most important

有威望的,有声望的,有威信的

beam

[T always + adv/prep] to send a radio or television signal through the air, especially to somewhere very distant

发送(无线电或电视信号)

feature

[T] to show a film, play etc

放映(电影);上演(戏剧)

tenure

This does not mean there is necessarily a problem with economics per se. Though there are fewer women in economics than in the humanities, the other social sciences or the life and environmental sciences, there is similar under-representation in mathematics, engineering and physics.

说明男女比例差距较大的情况不仅仅局限于经济学科领域。

per se

used to say that something is being considered alone, not with other connected things

本身;就本身而言

But Donna Ginther, a professor of economics at the University of Kansas, has found telling evidence that women are not just scarcer in economics; they also face a thicker glass ceiling.  Having started a job that has the prospect of tenure, women achieve that aim at a rate 12 percentage points below that of men. This is true even after adjusting (as much as possible) for differences in family circumstances and publication record. In American universities women who achieve tenure are promoted to full professor within seven years at a rate of 29% compared to 56% for men. Adjusting for other factors, Ms Ginther still finds a gap of 23 percentage points. In other social and natural sciences such differences are a thing of the past.

通过引用学者的研究作为论据,用于支持在经济学学科存在男女学者的数量差异以及成功完成自己学术目标的比例差异的论点。

telling

having a great or important effect

有力的;有效的;有重大影响的

glass ceiling 玻璃天花板

Unsurprisingly, given the above, women in economics are unhappier both than the men they work with and than the women who work in other disciplines, including those with similar gender disparities. In maths, computer science, engineering and the physical sciences, Ms Ginther found no discernible difference between the satisfaction reported by men and women with tenure or on the tenure track. In economics the gap is quite big. And it is growing larger (see chart).

discernible

If something is discernible, you can see it or recognize that it exists. 看得见的; 辨认得出的

对第一个论点进行深化和扩展论述,阐述经济学科领域的女性不仅仅数量上少于男性,而且幸福感也地域本学科的男性及其它学科的女性。并将横向对比的结果通过柱状图和线型图展现出来,使得论点能够以具体的数字为支撑,增强说服力。

Ms Ginther’s work is part of a mounting case that economics has an insidious bias against women. If this is so it is bad both for women in the profession and for women who might have entered the profession but did not. And it is bad for men in the profession, who are stuck with less impressive colleagues than they might otherwise have and less diverse workplaces.

mounting

gradually increasing – often used about things that cause problems or trouble

越来越多的(常指造成问题或麻烦的事物)

insidious

an insidious change or problem spreads gradually without being noticed, and causes serious harm      (变化或问题)暗中为害的,不知不觉间加剧的

bias  偏见

There is every chance that this lack of diversity constrains or distorts the field’s intellectual development. Women within economics have different opinions from men: in 2013 a survey of American economists found that men in the field were more sceptical of regulation and high minimum wages, and less likely to favour redistribution, than women were. If systemic gender bias skews the way the field looks at things, that has implications for the policymakers and others looking to academic economists for analysis, advice or indeed wisdom.

开始论述在第一个论点成立的情况下会对经济学领域的研究带来什么不利影响。

redistribution 重新分配

skew

to affect or influence someone’s ideas, actions, or judgment, especially in a way that makes the ideas etc not correct or fair 使曲解,使存有偏见

Who is rational, who is choosing?

The profession has not thought about these issues all that deeply. Beatrice Cherrier, a historian of economics at the University of Cergy-Pontoise, outside Paris, notes that when it does so, it tends to see the matter in terms either of inefficiency or choice.

In 1957 Gary Becker, an economist at the University of Chicago, suggested such an inefficiency might come from men not wanting female colleagues, and thus encouraging their managers to exclude productive workers. In a meritocratic, perfectly functioning market, competition would weed out such employers. Without tough competition, though, such prejudices would lead to good female researchers being shut out.

进一步论述在第一个论点成立的情况下的不利影响。

meritocratic

A meritocratic society or social system gives people status or rewards because of what they achieve, rather than because of their wealth or social position. (社会或社会制度)评功论赏的; 任人唯才的; 以功绩定地位的

Given the problem’s persistence over the decades, this sort of argument leads to the conclusion that academic economics is not as open to the bracing winds of competition as those in the field have been schooled to believe. This may be why many prefer the alternative family of explanations which sees the poor representation of women as a rational choice. Women who might become economists will make the decision as to whether they should do so based on their abilities, their preferences and their constraints. If women are worse economists, or do not like the subject, then perhaps the choice which many of them make not to pursue the subject is an entirely rational one.

猜想导致经济学科领域男女比例失调的原因可能是女性对自己的能力、喜好及不足作出评估后作出自主选择的结果。

schooled 受过教育的

If relative ability or innate preferences are the dominant factor, then women’s under-representation is not a problem for economists to fix. If, on the other hand, women have a similar range of innate potential and inclination towards the subject as men, but are avoiding or leaving it because it treats them worse, then the burden is on economists to change. And that is the way that the evidence currently points.

如果女性对自己的能力、喜好及不足作出评估后作出自主选择的确是导致经济学科领域男女比例失调的主要原因,那么改变这一现状的责任就不在经济学家们身上。但是,如果不是由于女性自主化的理性选择,而是由于她们在本领域受到不公正待遇,那么改变此现状的责任就应由本领域的同行承担。

Female economists start off in a minority. In America there are 2.9 men for every woman majoring in economics; in Britain, 2.6. In both countries women increasingly dominate the undergraduate population in general; in both the share choosing economics is falling. There may be some truth in the suggestion that women avoid it because they feel they lack the algebra-crunching ability it requires—but it seems there is probably not much. A study published in 2015 found that, in Britain, differences in maths qualifications explained only a sixth of the gender gap in applications. Research on why women at Harvard disproportionately give up economics after introductory courses also attributed only a small part of the effect to mathematical aptitude.

反驳导致经济学领域女性学者数量较少的原因是因为她们数学能力较差。通过反驳反面例子的方式来支撑自己的观点。

start off 开始

On average, it seems that undergraduate women who stick with economics are better at it than their male classmates. In Britain women in economics are more likely to get a 2:1 or a 1st than men are. This could be because quite a lot of men studying economics see it as a ticket to success in finance; they will stick with it despite a lack of aptitude in a way similarly able women do not.

通过引用女性在经济学科领域的学业表现要优于男性的研究反驳经济学领域女性学者数学能力差的观点。

A bias against bias

It is also possible that the way that economics talks about the world is less palatable to young women than to young men. A study published in 2006 found that women start introductory economics courses more sceptical about the subject than men, and the difference increases between the start and end of the course, despite no differences in their performance. Claudia Goldin, a professor of economics at Harvard, thinks the way that the subject is taught—with an emphasis on formalism, rather than human dynamics—could be part of the problem.

palatable

an idea, suggestion etc that is palatable is acceptable

(主意、建议等)合意的,可接受的

The women who graduate in economics go into PhD programmes at roughly the same rate as men; they tend to drop out of them at the same rate, too. But once they move on to seeking tenure, women are much more readily lost. This might mean that they are disproportionately pulled down other career paths they find more attractive than men

对本文作者认为的导致经济学科领域男女比例失调的真正原因通过抛出假设-论证假设或者推翻假设的方式,确立自己的真正观点。

One common suggestion is that women do not like the famously combative style of economics seminars. Motherhood may also be an issue. American academics usually have the option to pause their tenure clock when they have a child. Heather Antecol of Claremont McKenna College and Kelly Bedard and Jenna Stearns of the University of California, Santa Barbara have found that this family-friendly policy disadvantages female economists. Women in the field taking advantage of the extra time mostly use it for child care; men often use it for focused research undistracted by students. The effect has been to lower the chances of a woman getting tenure in her first job by 22 percentage points.

比如:女性不喜欢经济学领域上课的方式或者女性需要成为母亲,这使得她们需要在家庭中投入更多时间。

combative 好斗的;好争论的

This points to a more general issue about articles and publication. If women face a higher bar, one might expect them to be better than the men. But Ms Ginther finds that in the five years leading up to 2008, male economists published on average two more papers than female ones. A more recent study of the top 30 American universities found no statistical difference in the total publication count, but that men’s papers were published in more prestigious journals. If women are at best no more productive than men, a faculty-level gender disparity might be an efficient outcome, albeit one tilted by the disproportion in the pool of undergraduates. Actively seeking to change the ratio could damage the profession.

男性和女性在经济学领域的差异不仅仅体现在人数上,而且在发表论文的数量上也会存在差异。抛出这个论点,可以使得文章的主旨论点更加饱满。

disparity 差异

albeit

used to add information that reduces the force or importance of what you have just said

虽然,尽管

Ms Ginther is sceptical. People often behave according to biases they are unaware of; that could directly affect the promotion process. Take teaching evaluations. There is no evidence that women teach economics any worse than men; their students get the same grades in exams. But in 2017 a study found that student evaluations of female teachers in economics and business courses were systematically worse than those of men. Poor evaluations can affect tenure decisions. One speculative way of understanding this result, and perhaps the problem more broadly, would be to wonder whether economics attracts students particularly prone to sexism.

论证在经学科领域性别歧视的情况的确存在。

prone to 有...倾向的

sexism

the belief that one sex is weaker, less intelligent, or less important than the other, especially when this results in someone being treated unfairly

性别偏见[歧视]

Or take publication. Erin Hengel of the University of Liverpool finds that papers by women submitted to Econometrica, a top journal, take six months longer to go through the review process than men’s do. She also finds that the abstracts of papers written by women are significantly improved (according to an objective measure of readability) between submission and final draft, and that as their careers progress, the women’s first drafts improve. Neither effect is seen in men (see chart). This suggests women are being held to higher standards, which may explain their lower publication count.

解释在经济学科领域,女性学者的论文产出量比男性学者的产出量低原因并不是部分学者猜想的女性的学术研究能力更低,而是因为相比较与男性学者,她们对论文质量的更高追求在一定程度上限制了她们的产出数量。(为了打脸性别歧视论点~~哈哈哈哈)在这里再次体现了图表的重要性。

Heather Sarsons, a PhD candidate at Harvard, has investigated the effects of co-authorship. Looking at top American departments, she found that when researchers write papers on their own, women see their chances of promotion rise by roughly the same amount as men do. But when a man is a co-author on a paper he sees his chances of getting tenure rise by 8%, while for a woman the bump is a measly 2%. That adds up: Ms Sarsons finds women are 17 percentage points less likely to get tenure than men with similar publication records.

It may be relevant that, in economics, authors are listed simply in alphabetical order; there is no information about who contributed what. In the absence of that information, implicit biases can run wild. Ms Sarsons notes that in sociology, where the lead author is listed first, there is no such co-authorship penalty. She also notes, anecdotally, that on occasions when she has seen the same research presented to different audiences by a male co-author and a female one, it has been her impression that the men’s presentations go down better.

alphabetical 按字母顺序的

implicit

formal forming a central part of something, but without being openly stated

隐含其中的;内含的

anecdotally 轶事的

Ms Sarsons found that colleagues responding to her paper were supportive, but careful to rule out alternative explanations. “Economists do tend to think about every possible channel. That’s good,” she says. She tested several such alternatives herself, and found them wanting: for example, women are not systematically co-authoring with higher-status men who might legitimately be imagined to be doing more of the work.

systematically 系统的

legitimately 合理的

Some suggested that the people making decisions about promotion knew that men were choosing to co-author with less able women out of pity, or that women work less hard when there’s a man on the paper too. Neither Ms Sarsons’ research nor her experience lead her to entertain such notions. To some, this would seem like healthy scholarship. To others, this burden of proof when explaining gender disparities in their fields displays what Ms Ginther calls “a bias against bias”.

通过研究男性和女性学者合著论文来进一步说明性别歧视的存在。

entertain

entertain an idea/hope/thought etc

formal to consider an idea etc, or allow yourself to think that something might happen or be true

怀有某种想法/希望/看法等

notion 观念

A-long-way-from-home economics

Economists are increasingly aware of this. David Laibson, the chair of Harvard’s economics faculty, has brought in Mahzarin Banaji, a leading researcher on implicit bias, to brief search and promotion committees. The representation of women is not the only issue here; economics departments are also unrepresentative in terms of faculty from various minorities. Mr Laibson is pushing his committees to lean less on intuition and opinion and more on engagement with the research itself when making decisions.

经济学家们开始认识到性别歧视的存在,并开始采取相应的措施了。

unrepresentative 非典型的

faculty 学院

lean on  依赖 ...

intuition 直觉

engagement

[U] when you become involved with someone or something in order to understand them

(与…的)密切关系

Because people research things based on their experiences, greater representation of women in the field would change it in a number of ways. For one thing, it would take gender more seriously. Men have not proved particularly interested in understanding gender disparity; almost all of the research on gender discrimination within economics is done by women.

如果经济学领域的女性学者数量上升,也能够缓解本领域的性别歧视现象。

There may be deep structural barriers to break through. Historians note that, over the course of the 20th century, economics was butched up. In 1920, 19% of doctorates listed in the American Economic Review were being written by women. By 1940 the number had fallen to 7%. This coincided with a redefinition of the field towards mathematics and the world of paid and thus predominantly male labour. Concerns such as social work and home economics, in which women tended to specialise, were sidelined.

但是,客观来看,完全消除经济学领域的性别歧视现象存在难度。通过古今数据对比变化来说明经济学领域正在慢慢变得男性化。

butch up  男性化的

coincided with  符合

sidelined 退出的

Today, women in economics gravitate towards more people-oriented subdisciplines like health, education, development and labour. Emmanuelle Auriol, who co-ordinates a network of female European economists, worries that this may disadvantage both those fields and the women who work in them. Journal editors and reviewers (who are mostly male) are less likely to be familiar with the subfields in which women are more represented; they may also think them less important.

It is possible the greater representation of women in these areas lowers their prestige. Whether that greater representation is a matter of choice—women may for various reasons find such work more interesting—or a result of women being pushed towards less prestigious topics is hard to say. If the latter, the dynamics will favour a vicious circle.

gravitate

to be attracted to something and therefore move towards it or become involved with it

被吸引到

It is not just the topics women work on that matters; it is how they work on them. Becker won a Nobel Prize in part for his work on families and households—areas where female scholars tend to concentrate. His approach, though, was theoretical, while much of the work done by women has tended to be more applied and thus, Ms Cherrier points out, less prestigious. Up until the 1980s the data collection, microsimulations and randomised-control trials (RCTs) that women tended to do would struggle to reach the top journals.

theoretical 理论上的

Since the 1980s, as applied microeconomics has become more prestigious and economists have changed the ways their theories have been tested, the women who have tended to do this sort of work have achieved better publication records, and risen in rank. But some, including Ms Cherrier, fear a backlash. For example, increasing criticism has been levelled at the RCTs in development economics disproportionately carried out by women. Rachel Glennerster, the director of the Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab, a research outfit based at MIT that runs RCTs, worries that some of this criticism has a rather macho materiality, seeing health and education as minor relative to “bigger” issues like ports and roads. She repeatedly meets people who underestimate how hard the RCT approach is to run well. “As a society,” she wonders, “do we assume things are easier if there are more women doing them?”

举例说明在学术领域,性别歧视的存在: 女性研究的领域都是小儿科,不受重视。(读到这里,我的斗志被再次激发~~)

backlash

a strong negative reaction by a number of people against recent events, especially against political or social developments

(尤指对政治或社会事件的)强烈反应,反对,抵制

levelled 使平等

disproportionately 不成比例的

macho

behaving in a way that is traditionally typical of men, for example being strong or brave, or not showing your feelings – used humorously or in order to show disapproval

富有男子汉气概的,大男人的(幽默用法或含贬义)

materiality

the state or quality of being physical or material 物质性

underestimate 低估

Imbalances in power built deep into society are difficult to identify with an economist’s level of rigour. Gender cannot be switched on and off to see what would happen without it. But on the basis that economics does have a problem, various interventions might help. Approaches to family leave that don’t privilege men; scrutiny of the higher drop-out rate of female undergraduates; explicit description of each author’s contribution to co-authored papers, as is common in other disciplines; frank discussion of implicit biases. Some such interventions are easier than others. For example, studies show that having more women on the faculty is a powerful encouragement for women seeking postgraduate positions. But if the number of women on faculties could readily be raised, the problem would already have been solved.

最后一段呢,作出总结,说点煽情的论点。用语文老师的话说就是要引起读者共鸣。

rigour 严格;精确

intervention

the act of becoming involved in an argument, fight, or other difficult situation in order to change what happens

干涉,干预,介入

scrutiny

careful and thorough examination of someone or something

仔细的审视;彻底的检查

explicit

expressed in a way that is very clear and direct

清楚明确的;直截了当的

Note: Donna Ginther did her research into gender gaps in wellbeing and promotion jointly with Shulamit Kahn of Boston University.

以上就是关于范文中的好词好句,有时间的同学们可以好好分析一下,学习一下,说不定下次自己在写论文的时候用得上哦。

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