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Scopes trial

2022-05-13 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Essay范文

51Due教员组给各位留学生分享一篇纯原创代写范文essay,文章主要探讨了在科学发展史上,没有一位科学家像达尔文那样受到如此多的关注和批评。在20世纪20年代美国反进化立法的高潮期间,最受关注的是《田纳西法案》,该法案引发了著名的“Scopes审判”双方辩论的核心问题是科学与宗教的关系问题。进化思想和世俗教育被认为是对宗教的破坏,因此是非法的(Mineguy1012008)。它为我们在特定的社会文化背景下反思当前科学划界研究的困境提供了一个独特的案例。
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In the history of scientific development, no scientist has received so much attention and criticism as Darwin. During the climax of the US anti-evolution legislation in the 1920s, the most popular concern was the Tennessee Act, which sparked the famous "Scopes Trial." The core issue of the debate between the two sides is about the issue of the relationship between science and religion. Evolutionary thoughts and secular education were considered destructive against the religion, and thus illegal (Mineguy101, 2008). It provides a unique case for us to reflect on the dilemma of current scientific demarcation research in the specific social and cultural background. Although fundamentalism made strong claims against modernism, it failed to provide a comprehensive alternative for the American society.
The First World War of 1914-1918 had an unprecedented and far-reaching impact on human society. The First World War was a huge challenge to the faith and the United States. After the First World War, the pace of modernization, industrialization, and urbanization of American society continued to accelerate. With these progresses, people had also undergone major changes in their ideological understanding. The traditional Puritanism and conservative ideas since the colonial era were no longer favored by the American people. The Darwinian theory of biological evolution since the mid-19th century has become more popular. According to Marsden (1980), these thoughts, together with the cultural crisis that led to these ideas, caused a major revolution in fundamentalism.
The emergence of Christian fundamentalism is inseparable from the occurrence and development of Christian liberalism. From a historical perspective, the two factions, claims, and content of struggle at different stages were not exactly the same (Marty, 1993). That is to say, with the development of American society, the struggle between Christian liberalism and conservatism also varied. After entering the 20th century, the main roles of the contradictions and struggles between liberals and conservatives were or fundamentalism versus modernism. The content of the struggle also showed the characteristics of the times: Should the United States modernize, urbanize, liberalize, and secularize? The most direct and fundamental question involved is: Is this world created by God or evolved from animals? These problems were the most concerned by fundamentalism.
However, the fundamentalist themselves did not agree on how to respond to the secularization of Christianity. Many of them instinctively recalled the history of the evangelical years, claiming that the best way to oppose secularization was to restore what they imagined as a Bible-based civilization in their grandfather's era. The opposition of William Jennings Bryan (1924) against evolution and alcoholism was a clear manifestation of fundamentalism. The same is true of the fundamentalist patriotism, anti-communism and anti-Catholicism. On the other hand, dispensationalism claims that true believers, while waiting for Christ to return to the world, should maintain their purity. These fundamentalism practices were not compatible with the development of the industrialized society, and failed to come up with an alternative to modernism.

In conclusion, middle-class Americans faced the collapse of traditional beliefs and the ideological crisis as the new century began. This was essentially summarized as the contradiction between fundamentalism and modernism from the religious perspective. This debate included the entire moral process of the development of civilization. After analyzing the scientific view of the fundamentalism and the scientific demarcation standards, it is not difficult to find that the biggest difference between the two sides is the different understandings of science, especially the relationship between evolution and religion. Faced with the compatibility problem of science and religion, people should have a more open mind and consider both science and religion as on-going processes that attempt to make sense of the world.

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