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Agricultural products commercial speculation

2022-03-28 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Essay范文

51Due教员组今天给各位留学生带来一篇纯原创代写历史范文,讲的是都铎时代的农产品商业投机与治理,希望这篇可以帮助到各位留学生,同时需要代写也可以直接联系我们51Due客服vx(vx:Jenny_dynh)进行咨询。 

 

The Tudor dynasty dominated the entire Kingdom of Englanduntil Elizabeth I passed away in 1603. It went through with five generations of emperor and more than 120 years. Respectively are Henry VII(1485-1509), Henry VIII (1509-1547), Edward VI (1547-1553), Mary I, (1553-1558)and Elizabeth I (1558-1603), the Tudor dynasty of Britain is in the transition period from Feudalism to capitalism, it is identified as the golden age in British monarchy history. In Tudor era, because the price revolution of Western Europe did also affect the British, the price of crops increased sharply. Based on the statistical data, From16th-century (1501-1510) to mid-17th century (1651-1660), the food consumption price in the UK rose 6 times, and the price of industrial goods rose threefold in the same period. At that time, the increase of various kinds of food speculation behaviors in the UK made the residents more and more anxious, and the high price of wheat and other crops in the market affected the normal purchase demand of ordinary residents. The market prices had been volatile extremely, the government needs to take measures to solve the current situation. A number of regulations on food prices began to emerge.

When Britain was in the Tudor era. At this time, UK was still an agricultural country. Food consumption was the most important living food consumption for residents. Therefore, crops became the first choice for British domestic hoarders and the primary governance target of national governance. It is evident from the interpretation of relevant laws and regulations. The object of the related ban is for the businessmen to obtain the food supply speculative rights, regardless of whether the food supply right was speculative or regional. The scope of the ban covered the board scope, including speculate rights on various commodities, but especially for govern those who own speculative rights to grain. Food speculation and food hoarding was serious phenomenon at that time. Therefore, no matter what class you are in the Tudor era, everyone believed that the increase in crop prices was caused by grain brokers, and the grain brokers should be severely punished by the government. The commentators at Tudor era explained that: The residents attributed their poverty and hunger to the greed of grain brokers, and then grain merchants become the main abhorrence and resentment target among the UK residents. This shows rapid rise of the crop prices in the UK is the main reason which leading to the commercial speculation emergence and expansion at that time.

Regarding restrictions and eradication of misbehavior of food hoarding, the government’s main response measure was to establish a relevant parliamentary decree. In the fifth and sixth years of Edward VI’s tenure, Edward VI established an initial decree about prohibiting hoarding, preemptive wholesale and purchase, and prohibiting concentration of resale about crop products. Although the parliamentary decree is the supreme law of the Tudor dynasty, the enactment of the relevant royal decree can also have a certain supporting function. According to history record, during the Tudor period, about eight royal decree items were set up to fight against the hoard of food hoarding. During Henry VIII’s tenure, he established four items, respectively are, the prohibition of Grain Speculation and prohibition unauthorized of Military Supplies” (1512), the “Investigate food hoarding situation under every committee member' right” (1527), and "The order explained how to punish the food hoarders" (1534); Edwards VI set up two terms during his tenure, respectively are, the "reform coinage, hoarding and enclosure"(1551) and "Public censorship of preemptive purchasers and hoarders"; Elizabeth I established two decrees during his tenure, respectively are, "Implementation the amend acts against Previous Speculative Foods" (1598), and "Protection the Minister from slander; revised order to punish food Hoarders" (1600).

Take Britain during Tudor era as an example, there are two main purposes for the enactment of these parliamentary decrees and royal decrees: first, to ensure the Internal trade of domestic grain supply through export ban; second, to order grain suppliers to guarantee the balanced internal trade about adequate civil market supply. and to prohibit any form of hoarding and speculation behaviors.

In the 1630s, there existed a vicious cycle of "poor harvests, food shortages, food prices rising" in UK, until a serious crop failure event occurred in the UK, acted as a wake-up call for everyone. The food supplies were so tight that it was even hardly to supply in very time. The internal food consumption situation became to be volatile. However, at that time, there was no relevant parliamentary decree to provide relevant preventive measures and crisis management measures. Therefore, the royal decree can be regarded as the act of parliament. Lord Cromwell, the secretary of the privy council, called for an annual overhaul of the nation's grain stocks,and suggested that someday this proposal could be amended to a new law, but Cromwell had failed. In November 1534, a similar situation occurred again, and he advised to take a royal decree as an emergency measure, since it was not an act of parliament to check the country's grain reserves on time. In this decree, Cromwell accused bad behavior of illegal hoarding food, he thought that the high food prices are produced by those businessmen who made a fortune just for their own business. Unfortunately, the only rich food supplier continued to buy food, which caused a shortage of internal supply food. Because there is no justification was found and recognition about the rising price of grain. so the royal decree announced nobody were allowed to buy or resale the wheat or rye, except in order to satisfy market supply within internal trade, and those families hoarding enough food in the home are not allowed to continue to buy more food. Violators would be fined heavily and even jailed. In addition, the act made it clear that the illegal hoarding or speculative food were not allowed, the violators would be forfeit all their property and superfluous food. In order to ensure that the decree was given full attention, and get the full implementation. the Privy Council added supplementary clauses, allowed to create the food inspection committee, authorized the committee to check local food inventory each year. Any food inventory committee had the right to confiscate the food with unreasonable source, the members of this food inspection committee asked for people with, superfluous crops to take their superfluous food to the market, and sold them based on the local average selling price, otherwise would be fined, or even imprisonment. Local officials were seen as supervisor to maintenance this new decree, the goal is to assistance in execution this law, also supervised food inspection committee about concealing, corruption and bribery behaviors, to make sure the committee strictly implement the new legal requirements.

Judging from the starting point and the consequences of the establishing the related acts preventing the commercial speculation in the agricultural economic development in the Tudor Dynasty, the country’s governance measures have its own positive significance. Firstly, during the Tudor Dynasty, the British government cracked down on food hoarding behaviors, prevented the sale of grain speculation behaviors, and further achieved the goal of price control. These measure not only helped to protect the basic living standards of the citizens, but also protected the interests of middle class and the poor, to some extent, these measures reduced the burden on the poor. The top government stipulated the selling price for certain agricultural commodities, then the local government officials set the prices of local agricultural products, also punish hoarding of grain behaviors severely, punish the middlemen of speculative businesses. Through these series of measures, to some extent, made the momentum of excessively rising food prices was curbed at that time, safeguarded the interests of consumers and helped to stabilize social and economic order. Various of relevant laws and regulations, although they were impossible to fundamentally solve poverty problem and hunger problem within the lower class and the poor in the society, they safeguarded the interests of the lower classes, especially the poor. All these royal decrees can also suppress the phenomenon of unfair competition and are conducive to the development and growth of the internal trade for the future.

Secondly, in this particular industry background and historical context, the British kings in the Tudor dynasty made use of laws means to regulate and governance the national economy. This national governance principle of commercial speculation, in fact, it embodied the government intervention function. By combating agricultural speculation, the privy council

played an important role of consolidating the stability of the country’s economic structure, reconciling the British society economic contradictions in the special context of Tudor era background, the royal decree guaranteed the harmony and sustainable development of internal trade; especially on food consumption; and provided a foundation for the smooth development of the national agricultural economy and created a more favorable legal environment. In conclusion, the legislative achievements made by the British government during the Tudor Dynasty against commercial speculation had a profound effect on future generations and established the basis for modern legislation aimed at limiting trade monopolies.


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