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The concept of ugliness

2022-03-17 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Essay范文

今天给大家带来一篇优秀的论文 供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了中西方的丑学观念。丑是对丑的概念、形式和本质的研究,与美学相对应。 在西方,莱辛的《老孔》丑观已成为现代丑的开端。 莱辛将温克尔曼在古代艺术中描述的“拉奥孔之痛”转化为现代诗学语境下的“艺术丑”,违背了古典美的表现理念,发展出一套现代艺术丑体系,成为一种经典的艺术丑化方法。 现代丑陋。 在中国,丑是审美范畴之一。 它是指扭曲人的本质力量,违背人的目的和需要,片面的、怪异的、令人不快的甚至令人厌恶的事物的特征,与美相反。一起来看看这篇论文吧 有论文需要帮忙的亲亲可以联系我们的专属客服 Even100100进行咨询噢~

Ugliness is a study on the concept, form and essence of ugliness, which corresponds to aesthetics. The study of aesthetics can be traced back to ancient Greece, while ugliness emerged in the middle and late 18th century. In Laocoon, lessing put forward the idea that ugliness could only exist in poetry, but not in painting, which was undoubtedly the forerunner of the development of modern ugliness and laid the foundation for a series of discourse systems of modern ugliness. In China, the concept of ugliness has always been associated with "grotesque", "ugly" and "strange". In the view of modern scholars, the aesthetic thought of ancient Chinese art is related to "music" and "harmony between man and nature". However, lu xun once said that "Chinese people also like strange shapes and furtive temper". Therefore, the study of ugliness in the context of Chinese and western artistic concepts for comparative analysis, the concept of ugliness can be carried out in-depth anatomy.

Gao xiaokang once said in "the charm of ugliness" : "if there is no beauty, the world is a dark; Without ugliness, the world would be transparent. Beauty and ugliness have always been relative concepts. They compare and depend on each other. Without ugliness, the existence of beauty is meaningless. In Chinese and foreign history, many philosophers have discussed "what is beauty" in their works, and people tend to be cautious when trying to define beauty, but when discussing "ugliness", it is exactly the opposite. From the perspective of common sense, few people will doubt their ability to judge "ugliness".

Since Pythagoras school, the western classical aesthetics has always believed that the concept of beauty is harmony, completeness and unity, while ugliness is disharmony, uncompleteness and unity. Such concepts only define beauty and ugliness, but do not define the concept of beauty and ugliness. In the 18th century, the western aesthetician lessing proposed in his book laokong that ugliness could only exist in poetry, but not in painting. In lessing's view, "if a single part is not proper, it will destroy the harmonious effect of the many parts that make beauty." Therefore, ugliness cannot be the subject of poetry. But lessing suggests that poetry is an art of time, and that the effect of ugliness has been reduced in the poem by enumerating and describing the various parts, and that the repugnance caused by ugliness has been diluted by juxtaposition. In terms of effect, ugliness seems to have lost its essential meaning, and the antipathy brought by ugliness no longer exists. Only in this way can ugliness become the subject of poems.

But lessing later argued in a chapter that ugliness should not be a subject for painting. "Painting has the ability to show ugliness as an imitation skill; As an art of beauty, painting refuses to be ugly. Although ugliness, as described by poets, can cause a certain pleasure, in painting, such pleasure does not always occur. Ugliness in painting is not pleasing to the eye and violates people's love for harmony, unity and completeness. Therefore, no matter whether the ugliness we see is real or not, it is disgusting. According to Aristotle, the human thirst for knowledge can transform the ugly into the beautiful, but lessing refutes this view. Lessing believes that the pleasure of intellectual curiosity is temporary, but the discomfort caused by seeing ugliness is eternal, because it is not the effect of ugliness but the essence of ugliness that causes this discomfort. Painting is a spatial art. The ugliness that produces a sense of laughable and horrible cannot stay forever. After that, unpleasant feelings will gradually take over. Therefore, lessing believed that painting should not represent ugly subjects.

Lessing discussed the view of ugliness in Laocoon, which has become the beginning of modern ugliness. Lessing transformed the "pain of Laocoon" described by winkelman in "on ancient art" into "artistic ugliness" in the context of modern poetics, which violated the expression ideas of classical beauty and developed a set of modern art ugliness system, which became the classical method of modern ugliness. Lessing's discussion on ugliness also triggered many philosophers, artists and literary theorists to argue about the focus of "artistic ugliness".

The ugly monster in China once said that "ugliness is one of the categories of aesthetics, which refers to the characteristics of deformed, one-sided, weird, unpleasant and even disgusting things that distort people's essential strength and violate people's purposes and needs, as opposed to beauty". The concept of ugliness in China first appeared in the pre-qin period. According to zuo zhuan, "evil is straight and ugly is right" and "ugly and evil things". It is written in huainan zi in the han dynasty that "mo mu is beautiful while xi shi is ugly". Mo mu is a famous ugly woman in ancient times, but she is described in liennu zhuan as "very ugly and the most virtuous". It means that although she looks very ugly, she is virtuous and wise, so her ugly appearance has been replaced by the beauty of virtue. This shows that beauty and ugliness are not absolute, they also have corresponding differences with the changes of society and environment.

The development of ugliness in Chinese art history mainly goes through three stages, namely, spring and autumn period and warring states period, qin, han, sui and tang, song and qing dynasties. Before the spring and autumn period and the warring states period, the dominant ideology of human beings was religious consciousness, and human beings were still in the uncivilized stage. Many artworks were related to sacrifice or totem worship. In this period, power only existed in the hands of leaders or wizards, and everything in society was full of mystery and sacredness. The works of art in this period often have grotesque and frightening features, such as the mysterious patterns of "fish in human face" and "two-headed fish monster" on the pottery of yangshao culture. Singular in dawenkou culture pottery Gui modelling; The weird patterns of colored pottery in majiayao culture show us that the development of grotesque art in this period is related to witchcraft and totem worship. In the qin and han dynasties, the unity of opposites between ugliness and beauty gradually became clear. From the perspective of ethics, Confucianism emphasizes the essence of good, taking good as beauty and evil as ugliness. Taoism, on the other hand, starts from the philosophical point of view of "tao", emphasizes the natural inaction of essence, and opposes pretentious and gorgeous. Taoism holds that "tao" is the noumenon of all things in the universe, and only with the quality of "tao" and "truth" can things lead to "great beauty".

Since the tang dynasty, there has been a tendency to use ugliness as beauty in art. The poet du fu once wrote the ugly monster into the poem, he not only described the ugly thing in the poem, but also directly put the ugly word into the work, such as "old ugly hurt old ugly" "if the road wushan woman coarse ugly" and so on. This was related to the decline of the imperial court, the increasingly sharp social contradictions and the disillusionment of the new dream, which led to the formation of a kind of angry, lonely and withdrawn mood among the poets in this period. In the song dynasty, in order to express their unique feelings, many literati also had a tendency of not abiding by law and avoiding ugliness, which gradually turned to the field of calligraphy. Su shi once said: "I can't build this book, point painting fiddlin pleading." The Ming and qing dynasties were the era when the awakening of human nature was on the rise. More and more artists introduced a large number of ugly factors in their works in order to set up a unique case and vent their dissatisfaction. For example, jinling poets in the field of poetry often use strange words to express their uniqueness in rhyme. In the field of calligraphy, xu wei used to write words in a big or small, light or heavy, careless or regular script, deliberately showing disharmony and inconsistency in the picture, so as to express his anger. In painting, bada shanren, shi tao and others express their inner restlessness through peculiar compositions, weird shapes and grotesque images. In the art of Ming and qing dynasties, the purpose of expressing ugliness without avoiding ugliness or even deliberately is to express the loneliness, coldness and resentment of artists.

With the development of society, human's aesthetic ability improves with the enhancement of consciousness independence, and can transform the objective world subjectively and actively, making it become works of art with aesthetic value. Beauty is characterized by harmony, perfection and unity, and it is the affirmation of human nature, while ugliness is something characterized by deformity, defect, division and conflict, and it is the alienation and negation of human nature. Due to the changeability of people's aesthetic psychology, ugliness, after being processed and refined by art, makes people re-understand and feel its aesthetic significance and value, thus transforming the original "ugliness" into beauty. With the development of human society, why is there such a big difference between China and the west? Tracing its origin is the difference between Chinese and western cultural thoughts. Western perceptual psychology has changed from the harmony and one-way unification of ancient Greece to pluralism, and then to the confrontation between beauty and ugliness of modern western duality. However, Chinese philosophy has put forward the pluralistic thought of "tao gives birth to one, life to two, two to three, and three to all things" as early as in the Taoist stage. If the two are compared, the perceptual psychology of the west changes from the ignorant childhood of ancient Greece to the rebellious youth of modern and contemporary times, while China has been relatively mature since ancient times. Therefore, there are differences between Chinese and western philosophies in the source of human consciousness, which results in the difference between China and the west in the aspect of examining ugliness.

In my opinion, the study of ugliness in different contexts reflects, to some extent, the psychological feelings of artists caused by the social environment in this period. Social oppression, unrest and spiritual restraint make artists unable to continue to express the ideal of beauty, so that ugly no longer become the foil of beauty, but become the expression element of works, ugly really entered the audience's vision.

In fact, human's thoughts and expressions of beauty, ugliness, good and evil can reflect human's psychology from the side, which is a process of further enriching with the development of social practice and aesthetic practice, which is also an important sign of human's traditional aesthetic psychology turning to the development of ugliness psychology. Mr. Luan dong once said, "whether we can judge ugliness is not only a question of philosophical wisdom, but also one of the signs of whether a nation or an era is mature." The study of ugliness is not to divide beauty and ugliness, but to understand and understand beauty more deeply and thoroughly from the perspective of ugliness, so that people's exploration of beauty becomes broader and aesthetic concepts become richer.



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