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Care Ethics and Existentialist Ethics

2021-09-29 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Essay范文

51Due教员组今天给各位留学生带来一篇纯原创代写伦理范文,关怀伦理学与存在主义伦理学,希望这篇可以帮助到各位留学生,同时需要代写也可以直接联系我们51Due客服vx(vx:Jenny_dynh)进行咨询。

1. How and why care ethics come to the conclusion.

According to the text (Moral Boundaries by Joan C. Tronto), caring can be some kind of activity we do to maintain the “world” we live. It can be something we do to continue and repair the “world” we live in. In a word, caring is something we do to make the “world” better. This world not only includes ourselves, but also includes others and the environment which make our life a complex web.

Based on this definition, we can see that in ethics of care, caring can be seen as a fundamental factor of the world we live in. We can find varies of caring activities in almost every aspects of human being’s life. Individuals can not live a life without any caring activities. They always live in some ongoing caring process. According to the material, there are four phases to complete a caring process. First people find something to care about. After that, they identify others’ need and take care of other people’s need. Then, some people give care and others receive care. Also, care always involve with action and responsibility. This action cannot be done independently and people always take such responsibility for someone or something other than themselves.

Thus, as individuals, we are either care-givers or care-receivers. We live in a world where caring process happens everywhere and every time. More than a social interaction, care is also a moral issue which requires giving cares to others, receiving cares from others, assessing others’ needs, acting and response from others. No individuals can complete a caring process alone. In ethics of care, individuals always need others to complete a caring process as both a social interaction and a moral activity. Therefore, ethics of care argues that individuals are relational, not independent and autonomous, moral beings.

2. How and why Beauvoir's existentialist ethics come to the conclusion.

In the first place, it seems to us that the individual as such is one of the ends at which our action must aim. (The Ethics of Ambiguity Chapter 3. Simone de Beauvoir 1947). Here, to be an individual man is an “aim” and “end”. Human beings are not born as individuals. Instead, existentialism argues that “Existence precedes essence”. The essence of human beings is that they can achieve real freedom as individuals. Before achieving such essence, people just exist in this world without freedom and self-conscious. They are not autonomous. To achieve such essence, human beings have to take actions which aim at becoming the individual. People can not take such actions independently and alone. They must make contacts with others. In Beauvoir’s existentialist ethics, every man has to do with other men. Doing with other men itself could be considered as a process of achieving people’s essence. Make contacts with others is the way to be a real individual and get freedom. Every man has to do with other men in order to become a free individual. Without connecting with others, people can not get freedom and become a self-conscious individual. Therefore, Beauvoir's existentialist ethics argues that individuals are relational, not independent and autonomous, moral beings.

3. Role of others.

In ethics of care, others are defined as those who receive more detached care, and identified by whatever marks them as needing care. In other words, others can be seen as care-receiver in care ethics. Hence, “others” is the demand side in our ethical lives. It is others’ caring needs give our directions when we make a moral decision. When we want to give cares, the first thing we consider is that how to fulfill others’ need. Our decision can be considered “moral” when we give others the care they need. By giving such cares, others are satisfied as care-receivers and we successfully maintain, continue and repair the world we live in. By meeting others’ need, we make a decision morally. Thus, others are subjects in care ethics. They have needs and receive cares. They play a “demanding” and “receiving” role our ethical lives and our moral decision making.

In Beauvoir's existentialist ethics, others can be seen as objects. By doing with others, people can get free will and achieve essence of human being. In our ethical lives and moral decision making, others will not move spontaneously. Instead, we can consider others as objects. No matter what we do, others just stand and exist there. Living an ethical life, we have to make some contacts with others. Although sometimes doing with such “objects” can bring us annoyance and troubles, we can not get rid of such relationship. In the very beginning, human beings are not real human beings. They are some existences at first just like some vague pictures. As doing with others as a moral process goes on, human beings achieve their essence and get freedom gradually (Like a vague picture becomes precise). By making contacts with others as objects, we make moral decisions, achieve self-conscious, get freedom and finally become real human beings instead of just existing. Thus, others play a “supportive” and “objective” role in our ethical lives and moral decision making.

4. Significant difference.

Care ethics argues that others are care-receivers. They have needs and people give cares to fulfill their needs. Others in care ethics are subjects because they produce needs spontaneously. In care ethics, others are essentially are the same as us. We are both subjects. We give cares to meet others’ need. Others “produce” cares and receive cares. Together, others and we complete a caring process.

Existentialist ethics argues role of others in a different way. In existentialist ethics, others can be seen as objects. They are objects with freedom. Others do not produce connections and relationships. Instead, they are just some supportive objects where people can become free by doing with them. In existentialist ethics, others are essentially different from us. We are subjects and others are objects. Others just exist there and we get freedom through doing with others on our own initiatives.

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