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The Social Actor About Multi-Agent Systems

2021-07-13 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Essay范文

多智能体系统的讨论变得清晰,我们需要一个混合的观点,关于认知、反应性和社会性,认知代理必须是处于社会环境。在这篇社会essay代写范文中,我们关注社会的机构,即代理人的社会方面,以及社会代理如何嵌入环境。其中一个可能是,社会行为可以减少不确定性。陌生人主要关心的是不确定性的减少或增加可预测性,对自己和他人行为的交互作用。减少不确定性是人类的一种内在的愿望,它需要交流、社会交往和交流的社会态度。有论文需要帮忙的亲亲可以联系我们的专属客服 vx:Even100100进行咨询喔~

             The Social Actor About Multi-Agent Systems

社会行为的另一个可能原因是互惠或利他主义,利他主义可以被视为经济效用,最终还是对自己有一定好处。显然有一个迹象表明有一个无形的社会行为,可以解决个人之间发生的事情。下面的essay代写范文进行论述。

Abstract
  THE previous chapter has explained the eld of Multi-Agent Systems. In the discussion about Multi-Agent Systems it has become clear that we need a hybrid agent, one that is cognitive, reactive and social, i.e. the cognitive agent has to be physically as well as socially situated in the environment. In the next chapter, we explain what is understood by a cognitive actor and a reactive actor. In this chapter we want to focus on the social level of agency, i.e. the social aspects of an agent, and how the social agent is embedded in the social environment. The rst question that comes to mind is: why is it necessary to study and model a social actor, and what reasons are driving an actor to behave socially? The number of reasons to behave socially is plenty. One of them could be that social behaviour can reduce uncertainty. 
  For instance, the uncertainty reduction theory of Berger and Calabrese (1975) assumes that: . . . [] when strangers meet, their primary concern is one of uncertainty reduction or increasing predictability about the behaviour of both themselves and others in the interaction (p. 100). Hence, when reduction of uncertainty is an intrinsic desire of humans, it requires communication, social interaction and exchange of social attitudes in order to create certain predictions about behaviour of others. Another possible reason for social behaviour is reciprocity (Fehr & Gachter, 2000) or altruism. ¨ Altruism could be seen as the reason why self-interested economic utility calculations mostly do not work, i.e. the question is that: . . . [] when we help others, [is it] because our ultimate goal is to benet them, or whether our ultimate goal is always some more-or-less subtle form of self-benet (Batson & Shaw, 1991, p. 159). There are many other reasons and apparently there is an indication that there is an intangible aspect in behaviour that can be addressed as a form of social behaviour that occurs between individuals and simply cannot be understood by economic utility calculations alone. 63
  This chapter focuses on social aspects of the actor that enables it to behave socially. These aspects should create the possibility for actors to express social behaviour and become aware that they are not alone, but are also part of a group or society. In other words, the actor does not only live in his own world (internal representation) but also builds up relations with the outside world; with physical, social and cultural objects, actors and groups of actors. Sociology and social psychology are research elds that focus on interaction between (processes of) individuals and groups. 
  In our research we take social constructivism as a theory that focuses on the understanding of context and social interaction, and the assumption that knowledge creates and is created out of social processes. The second theory we adopt is semiotics that explains how knowledge and its meaning are created and transferred between individuals with the help of signs. And the third theory is cognitive science/psychology, which is discussed in chapter 4. Social constructivism as a social psychological theory attempts to explain the relation between the individual as part of its society. In our line of reasoning, the theory follows the right direction, however its description is too abstract to transform into a useful social (actor) model that is (directly) applicable for our use in a simulation setting. 
  Therefore, we adopted levels of description as shown in gure 3.1 and discussed in chapter 1. The intentional level and functional level are concerned with the individual's mind (respectively its intentionand-belief system and the learning/cognitive system); we elaborate more about these levels in the next chapter. The social level is concerned with behaviour of groups or being/feeling part of a group; it addresses topics like knowledge of the generalised other, habits of action, social laws, collective action and the overall characteristics of the group. 
  The semiotic level describes the use of language, codes and signs existing in a community and used for communication, interaction and negotiation. With help of a signication system and sign production, these signs can be understood and produced by actors. It seems that the semiotic level is a level that is present (as signs) in the community and in the individual as well. In section 3.4, we will elaborate more about the semiotic level and its connection with the social and individual (intentional and functional) level. Figure 3.1 also shows that the theories (cognitive/social psychology, sociology and semiotics) position or identify themselves with (pay most of their attention to) one of these levels. 
  We argue that in order to construct a model of the social (and cognitive) actor, we need to understand all these levels of description and corresponding theories. These theories and the social actor will be explained in this chapter except for cognitive science that will be elaborated in the next chapter. The outline of this chapter is structured in the following way (see also gure 3.1). In section 3.1, we introduce the chapter with social constructivism and argue that an actor socially constructs its world, i.e. the actor builds up representations in its mind about the social and physical world. Section 3.2 argues that an organisation exists by means of a collective social construction and that an organisation can be traced back to representations in the mind of the actors or members of the organisation. In section 3.3, we introduce the social environment 64 and introduce the theory of semiotics and communication. 
  We argue that an actor in order to behave socially not only requires the support of a communication process and its communicative functions, but also that such a communication process presupposes a signication system and sign production based on codes. In section 3.4, we start the discussion about the social actor1 and introduce the generic theoretical framework of social constructs. Social constructs are representations that exist in the mind of the actor, and physically as artefacts in the external world (documents) and can function as coordination mechanisms for the actor in order to exhibit social behaviour. Finally, in section 3.5, we close the chapter with a discussion about the requirements for an actor to exhibit social stable behaviour and argue that representations in the mind of the actor need support from a cognitive architecture; an argument that is more elaborated in the next chapter. In chapter 5, these requirements serve as guidelines for the design and modelling of the cognitive and social actor RBot.

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