代写范文

留学资讯

写作技巧

论文代写专题

服务承诺

资金托管
原创保证
实力保障
24小时客服
使命必达

51Due提供Essay,Paper,Report,Assignment等学科作业的代写与辅导,同时涵盖Personal Statement,转学申请等留学文书代写。

51Due将让你达成学业目标
51Due将让你达成学业目标
51Due将让你达成学业目标
51Due将让你达成学业目标

私人订制你的未来职场 世界名企,高端行业岗位等 在新的起点上实现更高水平的发展

积累工作经验
多元化文化交流
专业实操技能
建立人际资源圈

Puberty, Status, and Depression in Girls

2021-07-06 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Essay范文

今天给大家带来一篇优秀的论文  这篇论文讲述的是当前的基因研究中,我们检测基因环境交互的发育期,青少年抑郁症之间的联系,通过检查社会经济因素,了解年龄与抑郁症状的关系。参与者包括630名女性双胞胎,对国家青少年健康的纵向研究。与之前的研究一致,这篇essay代写范文表明,遗传对后来月经初潮与更少的抑郁症状有关,遗传对初潮的影响,也与更多的抑郁症有关。然而,这种模式是微妙的。一起来看看吧 有论文需要帮忙的亲亲可以联系我们的专属客服 vx Even100100进行咨询喔~

尽管来自较低的社会经济家庭,女孩显示抑郁症的整体水平较高,他们的症状也与遗传或环境相关。青春期是一个关键的时间点。下面的essay代写范文进行论述。

Abstract 
  In the current study, we tested for gene × environment interactions in the association between pubertal timing and adolescent depression by examining how socioeconomic factors might moderate age at menarche’s relation with depressive symptoms. Participants comprised 630 female twin and sibling pairs from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Consistent with previous studies, results showed that genetic predispositions toward later menarche were associated with fewer depressive symptoms and that genetic predispositions toward earlier menarche were associated with more depressive symptoms. However, this pattern was subtle and evident only in girls from higher socioeconomic backgrounds. Although girls from lower socioeconomic families showed the highest overall levels of depression, their symptoms appeared unrelated to timing of physical development through either a genetic or an environmental path. 
Keywords puberty, menarche, poverty, depression, gene × environment interactions
  Puberty represents a pivotal time for affective difficulties for girls. The striking discrepancy in depression rates between males and females first emerges during this transition, with girls’ internalizing and poor self-esteem typically increasing during the course of puberty (Cyranowski, Frank, Young, & Shear, 2000). Although puberty presents social and emotional challenges for all girls, individual differences in maturation play a key role; girls who mature ahead of peers are at particularly high risk for depression (e.g., Mendle, Turkheimer, & Emery, 2007). This correlation is complicated by two factors. First, both depression and pubertal timing are heritable. Second, both depression and earlier pubertal timing have been associated with socioeconomic disadvantage. In the present study, we investigate gene × environment (G × E) interactions in these associations. Specifically, we examine how girls’ socioeconomic background may moderate the genetic and environmental pathways between age at menarche and adolescent depressive symptoms.
 Puberty and Depression in Adolescent Girls 
  Early maturing girls are psychologically vulnerable. Compared with later developing peers, early maturers are more likely to exhibit internalizing symptoms (Graber, Lewinsohn, Seeley, & Brooks-Gunn, 1997), to meet criteria for a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., DSM–IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) diagnosis of major depression (Stice, Presnall, & Bearman, 2001), and to attempt suicide (Graber et  al., 1997; Wichstrøm, 2000). These findings remain robust across a broad range of measurement methods for both puberty and depression, which suggests that early puberty in girls is both “uniquely associated with substantial risk” (Graber, Nichols, & Brooks-Gunn, 2010) and carries “profound psychological effects” (Grumbach & Styne, 2003). Because adolescent depression creates susceptibility for future depressive episodes (e.g., Rutter, Kim-Cohen, & Maughan, 2006), it is perhaps not surprising that early pubertal timing continues to predict higher risk for depression during the course of adolescence and into early adulthood (Graber, Seeley, Brooks-Gunn, & Lewinsohn, 2004). 
  The most common explanation for the association between pubertal timing and depression hinges on the mismatch between physical, cognitive, and emotional maturation (also known as the maturation-disparity hypothesis; reviewed in Ge & Natsuaki, 2009). Puberty is characterized by a high degree of change, transformation, and challenge. Shifting friendships, new family roles and expectations, increases in parent-child conflict, novel romantic encounters, and either unwanted or unexpected sexual attention are all common during this time. Despite an outwardly mature appearance, girls who experience early puberty often maintain an age-appropriate level of cognitive and emotional development. This requires them to contend with the changes of puberty with fewer resources than peers who reach the same developmental milestones at a later chronological age—a predicament hypothesized to instill or to amplify feelings of isolation, loneliness, and helplessness.
 Socioeconomic Status, Puberty, and Depression 
  Early puberty is hardly random. Among industrialized nations, the United States is unique in its inequitable distribution of wealth across citizens (Davies, Sandström, Shorrocks, & Wolff, 2009). In general, girls from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds tend to reach menarche before girls from more affluent circumstances (James-Todd, Tehranifar, Rich-Edwards, Titievsky, & Terry, 2010). Earlier puberty is also related to factors often confounded with lower socioeconomic status (SES), such as family structure, race/ethnicity, or obesity (e.g., Bogaert, 2008; Freedman et  al., 2003; Obeidallah, Brennan, Brooks-Gunn, & Earls, 2004). These associations typically are considered sequelae of environmental stress: Early childhood adversities are believed to accelerate timing of reproductive maturation either through an evolved life-history strategy (Belsky, Steinberg, & Draper, 1991) or as part of “weathering,” the process of premature aging in individuals from disadvantaged backgrounds (Allsworth, Weitzen, & Boardman, 2005). Although most research on weathering considers health disparities later in life, timing of menarche may reflect one of the earliest signs that weathering begins in childhood. SES is relevant not just for pubertal timing but also for psychological well-being. 
  In general, there tends to be an inverse relation between SES and mental health; depression is disproportionately prevalent among both adults (e.g., Galea et al., 2007; Lorant et al., 2003) and adolescents from lower SES backgrounds (e.g., Dupéré, Leventhal, & Lacourse, 2009; Henderson et  al., 2005). Almost one half of women receiving public assistance report a clinically significant level of depressive symptoms and approximately 20% meet criteria for major depressive disorder (Lennon, Blome, & English, 2002). Consequently, low-SES teens come of age in families in which parents are often struggling and depressed themselves. They tend to live in neighborhoods with high degrees of violence, substance abuse, and social stigma. It has been suggested that these circumstances contribute to beliefs that negative experiences are far more common than are positive ones and that people have neither the ability nor the resources to change their own futures (Bolland, 2003; Bolland, Lian, & Formicella, 2005).

51due留学教育原创版权郑重声明:原创优秀代写范文源自编辑创作,未经官方许可,网站谢绝转载。对于侵权行为,未经同意的情况下,51Due有权追究法律责任。主要业务有essay代写assignment代写paper代写作业代写、论文代写服务。

51due为留学生提供最好的论文代写服务,亲们可以进入主页了解和获取更多代写范文提供论文代写服务,详情可以咨询我们的客服QQ:800020041。

上一篇:Creators and evolution of idea 下一篇:CRITIQUE OF THEORIES