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CRITIQUE OF THEORIES

2021-07-06 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Essay范文

 今天给大家带来一篇优秀的论文 这篇论文主要讲述的是弗洛伊德心理学来自神经学研究,调查潜在的所谓的大脑神经网络模型,并发现他们能够证明。因此内在的动机是寻求一种静止的状态,之后他所谓的快乐原则。这篇社会essay代写范文讲述了这一问题。在谈到成就的原因,他有一个截然不同的现实原则,也担任弗洛伊德的反思精神。但他认为这只不过是感觉能力,进行动态的识别。一起来看看吧 有论文需要帮忙的亲亲可以联系我们的专属客服 Even100100进行咨询喔~

CRITIQUE OF THEORIES

神经网络的研究,尽管有效地回忆起一个老联结主义,根植于经典的脑定位研究,弗洛伊德(1891),是对这一趋势反应的心理过程,加上一个表征心理理论,对于当前联结主义倾向。下面的essay代写范文进行详述。

The Two-Tier Psyche
Freud came to psychology from neurological research, having investigated the potential for what are called 'nerve-net' models of the brain, and found them capable of demonstrating only aversive learning (Freud, 1850 [1895]). Accordingly, he came to see the psyche averse to the disruptions of need, and hence intrinsically motivated to seek a state of quiescence, following what he called the 'pleasure principle'. Where tradition spoke of the attainment of reason, he allowed a distinct 'reality principle,' which also served as the vantagepoint for Freud's own reflections on the psyche. 
Yet he assumed here nothing more than Piaget's sensory-motor capacity, with a dynamic of identification, whence the 'unit' of the person. 5 The plausibility of his position was recognized by neurologist Karl Pribram (1954), and as the paradigm learning theory was established at Yale, John Dollard and Neal E. Miller dedicated their two applied texts respectively to Clark L. Hull and William F. Ogburn, and to Pavlov and Freud (Sahakain, 1975: 328). On the research front, O.H. Mowrer (1947), in the same spirit, set out to validate a 'two-tier' model, incorporating the classical or associative conditioning of Pavlov, and the operant or instrumental conditioning of Skinner. Yet a decade later, defeated by experiment, Mowrer (1956) retreated to a 'one-factor' model, confirming the impression Freud recorded in 1895. This Pribram (1954) rationalized in a 'drive reduction' account of the mid-brain.
Replicating the Crisis
'Nerve-net' research is now typically traced to McCulloch and Pitts (1943), although Grodzinsky (2002) usefully recalls an 'older connectionism,' rooted in the classic studies in cerebral localization, which we come to shortly (2.3-4). Freud (1891), it is true, reacted against this trend in favor of an holistic view of mental processes, combined with a representational theory of mind, which current connectionism prefers to avoid. Yet the awkward conclusions sketched above have merely been reproduced, so the impasse remains. There is a specific difficulty with altering the dimensions in which a problem is stated (Clark & Karmiloff-Smith, 1993; Karmiloff-Smith & Clark, 1993). It follows that behavior is either directly governed by habit, or must seek recourse to prior experience in some related situation (Clark & Thornton, 1987). 
In a philosophical perspective, one can say simply that modern psychology has reproduced Hume's skeptical empiricism. True to form, Peter Machamer & J. E. McGuire (2009) now wish to present a development in Descartes, leading precisely through skepticism to empiricism. Here is the ground for Chomsky's well-known critique of Skinner's behaviorism: as Cark and Thornton (1987) found, nerve-net models failed specifically on the linguistic features for which Chomsky (1956) proposed transformational grammar. For Dennet (1991), habituation is the baseline capacity defining animal evolution, while the human advantage depends on language functioning as a repository of past experience, but the capacity for learning assumed apparently cannot explain language itself. In the philosophical perspective it is surely significant that Dennet (1993) justified his conclusion in terms unmistakably nominalist, reverting to the position of Thomas Hobbes, anticipating physicalism and behaviorism.
Jakobson's Functions
Yet there remains the dimension of time in which applicable experience is sought. Children can readily grasp new dimensions of language, i.e. new classes of words with distinct grammatical functions, provided they are introduced one at a time in a graded series of exercises (Ellman, 1991). This is strictly comparable to the situation in a controlled scientific experiment, just the kind of situation which Hume did not consider (Baier, 1991). Importantly, for Clark & Thornton (1997) the hard, type-2 problems require binding a 6 variable which specifies the cause sought. Now temporal logic was pioneered by A.N. Prior, and has proved directly applicable to the branching pathways of computer programs, and hence to the procedure of following rules involving contingencies. 
Victor Goranko (1994) introduced reference pointers in temporal logic, allowing binding in phrases like 'what was said,' or 'what actually happened.' Allowing a social articulation of experience, such forms extend to pronominal references, and this at last addresses Chomsky's concerns. In a landmark study of current research, incorporating cross-cultural studies, Grodzinsky (2002) focuses on the problem of "the relation between transformationally moved phrasal constituents and their extraction sites," and shows that the capacity to process such relations is specifically impaired in Broca's aphasia, involving damage to the left anterior cortex. Now while Chomsky, and after him Steven Pinker appeal to an unspecified 'language module,' this specific and well-replicated evidence validates the classic analysis of aphasias by Jakobson and Halle (1956). This specifies two functions essential to language, the first concatenation (in psychological terms, association, lexical and semantic) and the second substitution, as in the recovery of a transformed phrase from a trace or pointer. 
Taken in the logical sense, with negation, these functions are sufficient to found elementary logic, and where the influences of Chomsky and Jakobson mingled in France, anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss (1955) envisaged reducing the phenomena of human meaning to binary oppositions and attaining thereby a 'mathematics of man.' So he marked the high tide of Modernism, and a gathering vogue for 'structuralism,' but in a later and notable return to the work of Marcel Mauss (1925), LéviStrauss (1968) confessed that he was merely elaborating a myth of modern times. That we must contend with something of the kind Derrida (1974) also stressed, but here this fatality comes to signify the simple fact that an act of comprehension is inevitably coloured by the consciousness in which it occurs, as a text is by the metaphors of its language.
Generalizing the Functions
The core of my argument here is the observation that the well-attested capacity first identified by Jakobson is adequate to the binding task in type-2 problems. Type-2 problems are not, of course, restricted to language, but the analysis of Karmiloff-Smith and Clark (1993) shows clearly enough that they are specifically sensitive to problem representation. So we return to the philosophical situation of recent decades: do we retreat from the challenge of universal knowledge into linguistic idealism, effectively identifying thought and language, or can we follow C.S. Peirce in recognizing that unfamiliar information appears as signs awaiting interpretation, so posing a representational problem which is not specifically linguistic? 
On the neurological front, one can dispute the idea that the functioning brain is 'built up' from modules, and think rather in terms of patterns of interaction in a brain functioning as a whole (Kurt Goldstein; Joseph, 1982). Thus Jakobson's function of concatenation is localized to 7 Wernicke's area, within what is known as the association cortex, and his substitution in the frontal zones, taken to support planning behaviour (Luria, 1973), where one must regularly substitute performances for strategies. In a word, one can take the classic linguistic zones to be secondary phenomena, actually specializations of two generic functions, specialized in support of language.

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