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sport development system essay

2021-06-05 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Essay范文

给大家推荐一篇优秀的代写paper范文-- sport development system essay。体育发展对一个国家至关重要。然而,体育发展的社会功能却被忽视。在澳大利亚政府2010年提出的体育改革计划中,共筹集了12亿美元的资金,推动各级体育事业的发展。然而,七年前的这项计划未能通过与不同组织合作促进社会凝聚力,充分发挥体育发展的潜力。本文认为,体育是把不同群体的人和社会凝聚在一起的“粘合剂”。将探讨体育对积极社会资本的贡献潜力,重点放在特定的种族、性别和年龄组。当然,处境最不利的人群应该受到最多的关注。本文首先介绍和解释了澳大利亚土著女性的弱势地位,然后从理论上论证了体育发展与社会凝聚力的相关性。本次讨论的目的是消除障碍,实现澳大利亚土著女性在获得与其他人口统计相同的体育系统利益方面的平等。为了达到这一目的,本文最后将提出七条建议。


Sports development is vital to a country. However, the social function of sports development has been neglected. In the sports reform plan proposed by the Australian government in 2010, a total of 1.2 billion Australian dollars was raised to promote the development of sports at all levels. However, this plan seven years ago failed to fully realize the potential of sports development and promote social cohesion through cooperation with different organizations. In this article, some people think that sports are the "glue" that binds different groups and communities together. It will focus on specific races, genders and age groups, and explore the potential of sports to contribute to positive social capital. Of course, the most vulnerable people deserve the most attention. In this article, we introduced and explained the disadvantaged position of Aboriginal women in Australia, and then established a theory of the correlation between sports development and social cohesion. The purpose of this discussion is to remove barriers and achieve equality for Aboriginal Australian women in accessing the same equal benefits of the sports system as other demographic data. In order to achieve this goal, seven suggestions will be made in the last part of this article.


According to a report from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Australia ranks fifth among the most obese developed countries. By 2007, more than half of Australian adults were considered overweight or obese. The proportion of overweight children is 17% (Australian Government, 2010). Over the years, these amazing numbers have prompted the government to formulate a national sports plan. However, most of these plans are aimed at the entire population, while the vulnerable groups in Australia have been ignored. Although developing a specific plan for a certain population may seem unfair or discriminatory to others, it should be seen as an important step towards social cohesion. The social function of sports was not realized until the 1990s. At that time, the public paid little attention to the social cohesion brought about by public sports. Exercise is mainly for sports, because the main focus of the Australian Sports Commission is excellent athletic performance. It is the realization of the greater potential of sports for social development and harmony that makes "indigenous sports" an important issue. The development of modern Australian Aboriginal sports can be traced back to the beginning of the 20th century, when the Australian Aboriginal population shifted from traditional hunting and survival skills to modern sports activities. Although mainstream society has embraced indigenous inclusion since the 1960s, it has not been until recent decades that specific plans have been developed to promote their participation. There are many obstacles preventing the indigenous people from fully benefiting from the current sports system. Both internal and external factors of the level of participation are crucial, and this has gradually become a source of inequality between different ethnic groups in Australia.


According to research conducted by the Australian government, women's sports account for only 9% of all sports news in the country and about 10% of men's sports reports (Australian Government, 2010). In national sports organizations, the number of women on the board of directors is less than 25%. These figures directly indicate the weak position of women in sports-related issues. Similar to the female population, the aboriginal population is also disproportionately represented in national sports news and organizations. This has led to a gap in life expectancy between Aboriginal and non-indigenous Australians. Sports can be an effective tool for improving the well-being and mental health of communities in the past. Participating in sports will also improve the level of social integration among different ethnic groups. However, these benefits of sports have not been realized in Australia. Another group that lacks sports participation is the younger generation (Crawford, 2009). With more and more competition on social networks and video games, sports may be at a disadvantage if they are not fully promoted. In addition, although movie stars and YouTubers are popular with the younger generation, inspiring role models for various sports suitable for teenagers are lacking. Traditional beauty images also hinder girls from choosing sports that may "damage" their femininity. Combining women, aboriginals, and young people, this group has become the most vulnerable group, and you need to be extra careful when formulating sports development plans.


In addition to the barriers discussed above, indigenous women are also constrained by traditional concepts of family responsibilities and the subordinate role of women in the family (Macdonald, Abbott & Jenkins, 2012). It is precisely because of these beliefs that indigenous women are less active and less concerned about their physical health. Another noteworthy research factor is the impact of gambling on indigenous women. According to a survey of more than 600 Aboriginal women in Australia, gambling has become one of the popular social activities with a high participation rate (Hing, Breen, Gordon and Russell, 2014). Although gambling between friends and relatives seems harmless, it reduces the opportunities for women to participate in more active social activities such as sports. Although the author proposes to educate women about gambling awareness, people believe that providing alternatives is the best way to prevent addiction. Such plans must be more targeted at specific goals, because gambling mothers can also negatively affect their daughters. To help aboriginal women remove obstacles, a combination strategy should be adopted to extend the development of "pure" sports to human, cultural and social development. This expansion is achieved through increased cooperation between sports organizations and non-sports organizations. For example, in the UK, sports funding is increasingly not only from government agencies related to sports, but also from non-sports organizations and institutions (Skinner, Zakus, and Cowell, 2008). The purpose of participation is mainly to strengthen the social tolerance of disadvantaged groups. This strategy also applies to Australia because the two countries have similar cultural and social backgrounds.


The correlation between sports development and social capital has long been established. In the paper by Skinner, Zakus & Cowell (2008), unlike economic and cultural capital, social capital is only accumulated through mutual recognition or recognition between different groups. Therefore, the author believes that sports development has the ability to establish connections, increase community participation, and make positive contributions to social capital. According to the lecture notes, one of the important characteristics of sports development is: equal opportunities and unequal efforts. Due to pre-existing social and cultural norms, indigenous women face more challenges in participating in sports, which naturally means that they need to make more efforts to restore equality. The traditional sports development model needs to be modified for each element to make it suitable for Australian Aboriginal women. When defining the development path, it is necessary to clearly identify the different stages and their respective stakeholders and required resources. The goal is to establish a continuous system of sports participation for indigenous women: foundation, participation, performance and ultimate excellence. Only when every element in the continuum is guaranteed, can indigenous women participate in high-performance sports. Therefore, before equality is finally achieved, it is necessary to invest in the development of basic infrastructure, services and assistance systems. This is a process that takes years or even decades to complete. In order to ensure the flexibility of the system, a bottom-up feedback tunnel must be established. Since people working at the end of the system may know more about the appropriate ways to help indigenous women than policy makers, they should attach great importance to and initially respond to their investment in policy adjustments.


Based on the above discussions, seven recommendations have been derived to help promote the health of Indigenous females in Australia, enhance social cohesion among different ethnic groups, and promote equality in sports development. The specific recommendations and elaborations are listed below:

1.Enhanced community & family-level engagement

Community and family are important units for the lives Indigenous women. Therefore, it is much easier to motivate Indigenous females with peer influence and activities organized by the local communities. The focus of the events organized should be family-orientated activities and group walking programs, with the issues of cost and safety properly addressed (Hunt, Marshall & Jenkins, 2008). The concept of activities must be meaningful, relevant and sustainable for the Indigenous females, so that lasting effects can be created locally. In addition to reaching out to the families, the community should also have access to high-level organizations in the sports development system, so that community, sports activities and high-performance sports are integrated within a single system.

2.Enhanced qualifications for the coaches

Coaching education in Australia should no more be exclusive for elite coaching. Instead, a more public-oriented teaching program should be developed, with specific courses focusing on the promotion of Indigenous participation. The addition of social science or psychology courses will better equip the coaches for teaching a wider range of people. This is a crucial step for the foundation of the sports development continuum.

3.Locating, nurturing and promoting more inspirational sports figures

In response to the problem of lack of representation, some effort should be made to find more figures that are inspiration for the younger generation in Australia. In the report published by the Australian Government in 2010, a plan of identifying talented Indigenous Australians have already been sketched. This plan provides sports development opportunities for thousands of young athletes. Moreover, cooperation with schools and community will make it easier for the continuation of the plan. Positive Indigenous female sports persons are expected to create long-lasting effects and inspire more young females to break free from convention and participate in sports.

4.Improved government coordination

Indigenous sports programs often suffer from poor coordination between difference government agencies and levels (Crawford, 2009). This source of inefficiency must be eliminated with the establishment of clear common goals between different stakeholders working together. The cooperation between AIS with Netball Australia serves as an effective example of how an alliance, a collaborative effort based on mutual interest is able to achieve something much greater.

5.Better planning to respond to potential barriers against participation

Trust should be considered as the premises for success, between the participants and the event organizers. This is why the significance of community engagement should not be underestimated. Cost of transport and facility accessibility should also be properly addressed, since these factors are important for Indigenous females to take the initial steps (Skinner, Zakus & Cowell, 2008). Funding is more easily gathered when the planners think bigger than sports development with the considerations of health, social cohesion, etc.

6.Customized exercise plans

According to Pressick, Gray, Cole, and Burkett (2016), “group-based programs that include nutrition, exercise and/or sport components for Indigenous adults are effective in achieving health and QoL (Quality of Life) outcome.” Based on the survey conducted, a combination of walking, running and different types of exercises prove to be more acceptable for Indigenous females.

7.Creating a safe environment for Indigenous Australian females

To serve as an effective distraction from the potentially harmful and unhealthy activities, such as gambling, sports facilities and activities must be designed to be attractive enough for indigenous females. Coaches with adequate qualifications and a caring, responsible nature are preferable in schools, so that it is easier for indigenous girls to develop a profound interest in sport activities.

In conclusion, social cohesion and sports development have been proved to be positively correlated with each other. Therefore, it is necessary to combine the goals from different originations and agencies to work towards the common goal of equality. The historical data presented have shown that Australian Indigenous females, especially the young girls, are the most susceptible to lack of sports participation, and therefore among the most disadvantaged groups needing help. Factors such as the male dominance in sports issue coverage by media, the conventional role of females in indigenous households, the increasing influence of social media, the risks of addictive gambling are all barriers that prevent Indigenous females from the benefits of the Australian sports system. In response to these issues, a customized sports continuum is urgently needed, with a bottom-up feedback mechanism. Based on these theories, seven recommendations have been derived, which can be of reference for policy makers. It is also important to ensure that the inclusion programs for Indigenous populations do not interfere with or undermine sports development, or make the latter redundant, since it would completely defeat the original purpose or the programs.




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