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Business and Sustainability

2021-06-03 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面给大家推荐一篇优秀的商科代写paper--Business and Sustainability。可持续性战略强调一系列促进可持续性的战略计划和措施,包括环境可持续性、社会可持续性、经济可持续性和商业可持续性等(Hopkins & Berns 2009)。可持续性源于可持续发展的概念,它是指使人们能够通过一些同时保护环境的方法和方式来实现社会目的和提高人们生活质量的动态过程(Noe & Wright 2003)。经济增长和城镇化背景下的增长和发展模式存在疑虑,人口资源也存在疑虑。这表明可持续发展战略的实施是由于社会和环境因素的某些原因造成的。然而,这些环境和社会问题与一些私营部门的影响是分不开的。本文将首先讨论可持续发展的背景和意义以及一些可持续发展战略。接下来,将分析企业参与可持续发展战略讨论的经济和社会机制。最后,将讨论社会因素在可持续性问题中发挥更大作用的原因。

 

Topic 1:

Introduction

Sustainability strategies stress a series of strategic plans and measures to promote the sustainability including environmental sustainability, social sustainability, economic sustainability and business sustainability and so on (Hopkins & Berns 2009). The sustainability resulted from the concept of sustainable development, which refers to dynamic process that enables people to achieve the social purpose and improve people’s life quality through some methods and ways which can at the same time protect the environment (Noe & Wright 2003). There were doubts about the pattern of growth and development in the context of economic growth and urbanization as well as population resources. This indicates that the implementation of sustainable development strategies resulted from some reasons from the social and environmental elements. However, these environmental and social issues are not separate from the impact from some private sectors. This essay will first discuss the background and meaningfulness of sustainability development as well as some sustainability strategies. Following this, it will analyze the economic and social mechanism for the enterprises to participate in the sustainability strategies’ discussions. Finally, it will discuss the reason that social elements are playing a greater role in sustainability issue.  

 

Sustainability and its evolution

The sustainability arose from the social and environmental elements initially. With the deterioration of the ecological environment and the shortage of the earth resources, the sustainability is becoming a global appeal to promote the global sustainable development.

Thanks to a Marine biologists concern for birds

In the name lists of an American Marine biologist, Rachel Carson, has always been mentioned in all the events of sustainable development. That is because in the middle of the last century she launched a book on insecticides, especially the devastation of birds and the environment. The idea of ecology in her book was eventually accepted by people (Hopkins & Berns 2009). The environmental problem has since been gradually moved to the center of the global and economic agenda by a marginal problem (Hopkins & Berns 2009). Following this, the problems arising from the energy crisis and resource shortage make people aware of the importance of integrating the economic and social sustainable development (Hopkins & Berns 2009).

Inspired by the debate of limits to growth

In 1972, an organization called the Roman club published a report titled “limit to growth”. This report predicted that growing population and developing economy put forward to severe requirements on the resources in the next century, unless humans consciously limit population growth and industrial development (Steger 2004). This warning from the report inspired people’s considerations of the sustainability.

The world conference on environment and development

In the 1980s, the world environment and development commission organization reported and first elaborated on the notion of sustainability. In terms of the formation of sustainability concept, the most international meaningfulness is the United Nations conference on environment and development held in Rio DE Janeiro, Brazil in June 1992. At the conference, the leaders from many countries and regions passed through a series of legal documents, and cleared that the development has a huge relationship with the environment.  

Based on the evolution process, sustainability arose from the environmental and social factors.

In terms of the environmental element, the sustainability concept was first introduced by an ecologist, who put forward to the ecological sustainability and environmental sustainability (Steger 2004). The introduction of this sustainability concept aims at illustrating the relationships between economic and social development and ecological environment and natural resources (Steger 2004). In 1991, Intecol and Lubs together started a conference about development and sustainability. The result of the conference developed and enhanced the concept of sustainability strategies as well as defining sustainability as enhancing and improving the social environment and increasing the production and renewal capacity of the environmental system.

For the social element of sustainability, Steger (2004) put forward to the concept of sustainability. He defines the sustainability as improving the quality of life of human beings while maintaining the current ecological system and production capacity and the nine basic principles of sustainable living. In addition, it also put forward to the sustainable development related to human values and emphatically discusses the final foothold is the sustainable development of human society, which aims to improve the quality of human life as well as bringing a better living environment for human beings (Dillard, Dujon & King 2008).

Therefore, the initial consideration for the sustainability strategies is to protect the ecological and social environment. However, this consideration has changed because of some reasons and the sustainability strategies are becoming considering more economic elements.

 

Economic policy to promote the sustainability

Although a large number of forums and articles as well as international conferences put forward to the importance of sustainability on social and environmental protections, not all people or organizations can self-consciously and voluntarily to protect the environment, especially when damaging their own interests. Therefore, some economic policies become particularly important to regulate the behaviors of people and social organizations in the integration of sustainability strategies.

Economic policy mainly emphasized using the economic mechanism and economic rationale to motivate the enterprises to take more social responsibility and enhance the business’s sustainability (Loorbach & Wijsman 2013).

Hayek (1966) divided the social order into two different situations. One order originates from within the enterprise itself and another originates from external organizations. According to Hayek’s theory, social order is a state of interaction between members of a society and this order depends on some rules to form and perpetuate. In addition, the stakeholders’ theory also indicates that different stakeholders can interact and the business sustainability can be affected by the social and environmental sustainability (Loorbach & Wijsman 2013). These scholar theories indicate that external policy and economic rationale can play a critical role in promoting the business’s sustainability. For example, an enterprise’s production may lead to positive or negative externality. The negative externality is also called external non-economic, refers to the cost of a third party that fails to be reflected in the price of product or service (Loorbach & Wijsman 2013). The essence of negative externalities is that the price of a product or service cannot adequately reflect the marginal cost of society for producing or providing a product or factor of production (Persson 2004). For example, the paper mills will pollute the environment, which will cause losses to others except the paper mill. However, the paper mill does not calculate the damage to its paper prices. In the long run, this is not beneficial for enterprises to take more social responsibility and sustainable development. In view of this circumstance, it is necessary to take some economic policies and use the economic rationale to regulate the enterprise’s behaviors. The typical economic rationale is the corporate governance. Improving the corporate governance structure is helpful to solve the externalities problem and promote the enterprise to take more social responsibility. The perfect corporate governance structure can make the employees, suppliers, customers, community and the public and the government really involve in the company’s decision to reasonably give play to the role of effective supervision, such as the composition of members of the board of directors, or regularly organize all kinds of personnel involved in the company. On the basis of this, the government can use the macro-control method and guide the enterprises to take the corresponding social responsibility in the interest of the enterprise.

 

The mechanism for the business enterprises participation in sustainability debate

According to the stakeholders’ theory, the sustainability is related to almost all stakeholders such as government, organizations, community and individuals (Bryson & Lombardi 2009). Especially, people are paying more attention to the private sector’s participation in sustainability debate. This is mainly because sustainability plays more and more important role in promoting the sustainable development and increasing the profits for the private sector (Bryson & Lombardi 2009).

Enterprises’ sustainability strategies are the important performance for enterprises to take more social responsibilities (Bryson & Lombardi 2009). Corporate social responsibility is also called the ethical responsibility of enterprises, that is, enterprises should undertake more social responsibilities while maximizing the enterprises’ profits (Bryson & Lombardi 2009). The sustainable development of enterprises cannot be separate from a certain social environment, and it needs to make the response to the society is the manifestation of enterprise rationality (Bryson & Lombardi 2009).

First of all, participating in the sustainability debate can help the private sector better make the sustainability strategies and take more social responsibility, which is beneficial for enterprises to realize their purposes (Bryson & Lombardi 2009). Enterprises are social organizations, and enterprises have a lot of connections with society (Bryson & Lombardi 2009). In particular, a healthy society environment and order will provide and create a good condition for the survival and development of an organization (Bryson & Lombardi 2009). Countries provide the material resource, such as human resources, cultural resources, preferential investment conditions, security and good social environment. A fair and legal system and the stable society is a necessary condition for enterprises’ survival and development (Bryson & Lombardi 2009). The development and growth of enterprises not only requires the good conditions of the society, but also the enterprises require the society to take the failures’ consequences caused by the enterprises’ bankrupt (Dyllick & Hockerts 2002). The existence and development for enterprises are always based on certain society environment. Therefore, enterprise also must take more social responsibility and participate in the sustainability debate to provide more and better social products and services to society (Dyllick & Hockerts 2002).

Private sector participates in the sustainability debate, which is the need for enterprises to develop contractual relationship with various stakeholders. According to the corporate governance theory, private sector is not only an independent legal unit, but it also needs a large number of stakeholders participating in the social interest relations such as suppliers, consumers, governments, community and so on (Dyllick & Hockerts 2002). In the market and economy environment, there exists the contract relationships among a variety of stakeholders (Sanford 2011). It is the interest relations that promote the economic development of the enterprises and society’s wealth increase (Sanford 2011). Therefore, it is necessary for private sectors to develop and establish the stakeholders’ relationships, which can make the enterprise achieve the sustainable development as well as taking more social responsibility (Dyllick & Hockerts 2002).

Besides, private sectors’ participation in the sustainability debate can help them establish good social reputation. When the private sector participates in the sustainability debate, they will look for more measures and strategies to provide quality service and quality products to meet the customers’ demands, thus win the trust of customers and establish good corporate image among customers (Crane & Matten 2016). At the same time, the participation in the sustainability debate also improves their reputation in the society, which can help establish a good brand effect for private sectors and further increase the market share of the products or services  (Crane & Matten 2016). Good reputation helps private sectors attract customers, investors, potential employees and business partners (Salzmann & Steger 2005). All of these will be beneficial to enhance the private sector’s market competitiveness and sustainable development in future.

 

Shift towards a greater role for the social elements of sustainability

In recent years, there has been a change that social factors are playing a greater role in sustainability issues.This means that private sectors’ participation in the sustainability debate is more resulting from the social consideration. The social elements mainly include the environment element, resource element, population element, market element etc.

First of all, faced with the exploitation of resources and energy and the deteriorating environment, the environmental concept of private sectors has changed radically. The ideas and notions of “abundant natural resources” have been abandoned (Grimstad 2011). People begin to realize the natural resources’ shortage and environmental loading capacity is always limited with the growth of population. The low efficiency and low output should be shifted into low input and highly efficient circular economy (Grimstad 2011). In addition, the successive introduction of environmental laws and regulations has prompted enterprises to actively implement the strategy of sustainable development (Buenemann & Ojima 2011). This is because the laws and regulations are binding on the environmental behaviors of enterprises. Form the international point of view, global and regional environmental protection increasingly widespread legal regulations and rules of the green trade, which makes the trade barriers from tariff barriers to green barriers. Therefore, it is necessary for private sectors to make the sustainability strategies to develop green products to increase the trades among international markets.

Last but not least, the increasing demands on the green products in the markets promote the corresponding environmental protection measures and the implementation of the sustainability strategies (Bringezu & Moll 2003). At present, more and more consumers are inclined to consume green products. Under the influence of the green consumption trend, private sectors have to put aside polluting production in order to maintain the sustainability of the production and benefits (Atkinson 2000). The green products not only bring huge attractiveness for consumers, they also maintain and even increase product sales volume and enhance the enterprises’ market competitiveness (Coulson & Thomson 2006).

In all, both the development trend of the whole society and the need of enterprises’ own development require them to participate in more sustainability debate.

 

Conclusion

In conclusion, this essay has carefully discussed the evolution and rationale of the sustainability strategies. The sustainability concept initially arose from the social and environmental considerations. The increasingly climate change and environmental deterioration as well as the resources shortage and population growth makes the society to pay more attention to the sustainability. Considering the externalities of productions for enterprises, some economic mechanism and economic policies are necessities to regulate the enterprises’ behaviors and make their take more social responsibilities. In terms of the rationale for private sectors to participate in the sustainability debate, the social and morale systems play an important role. Enterprises depend on the society for survival and development. When enjoying the benefits the society provide, they also must take more social responsibility to respond to the society. The competitiveness and obtaining more reputation also promotes the private sectors to participate in the sustainability debate. There has been a shift towards a greater role for social elements of sustainability. The exploitation of resources and energy and the deteriorating environment changed people’s concept of production. The successive introduction of environmental laws and regulations and the green products’ demands has prompted enterprises to actively implement the strategy of sustainable development.


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