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The Obsessional Neuroses of Humanity

2021-05-06 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Essay范文

给大家推荐一篇优秀的paper代写范文。作为精神分析学的奠基人,弗洛伊德介绍了文化研究的新视角,尤其是宗教研究。他是第一个使用心理分析理论来解释宗教的心理学根源的人,这在宗教研究领域是独一无二的。例如,尽管他的宗教理论存在明显的不足,但他的结论是基于类推,缺乏科学依据,这引起了对其理论的怀疑(Kristol,I.,1949; Sharpe,EJ,1975; .Harold (1992; Karen,A.,1993),他对宗教理论发展的贡献是毋庸置疑的。他是宗教研究各个分支中从未忽视的重要人物。约翰斯通(Johnstone)(1983)在他的《社会中的宗教》一书中指出,弗洛伊德认为“上帝是父亲的投射像”具有社会学意义,因为他强调了人格结构和背景。 Streng(1985)认为弗洛伊德对宗教心理学做出了重大贡献,因为他从潜意识层面揭示了心理学的力量和功能。帕尔斯(Pals,1996)将弗洛伊德的宗教观点视为七种最具影响力的宗教理论之一。他指出,弗洛伊德引起了其他精神分析研究者对宗教现象的关注,并产生了大量有关理论和治疗的文献,为当代宗教解释做出了巨大贡献。克罗伯(Kroeber,1920)得出结论,不管弗洛伊德的某些假设是鲁re的,他都具有敏锐的洞察力。他提出了一种人们永远不会忽视的观点。

As the founder of psychoanalysis, Freud introduced a new perspective of cultural studies, especially religious studies. He was the first person to use psychoanalytic theory to explain the psychological roots of religion, which is unique in the field of religious research. For example, although his religious theory has obvious shortcomings, his conclusions are based on analogy and lack scientific basis, which arouses doubts about his theory (Kristol, I., 1949; Sharpe, EJ, 1975; .Harold (1992) ; Karen, A., 1993), his contribution to the development of religious theory is unquestionable. He is an important figure who has never been ignored in various branches of religious studies. Johnstone (1983) in his "Society in "The Religion" pointed out that Freud believed that "God is the projection image of the father" has sociological significance because he emphasized the personality structure and background. Streng (1985) believes that Freud's interpretation of religious psychology He made a significant contribution because he revealed the power and function of psychology from the subconscious level. Pals (Pals, 1996) regarded Freud’s religious views as one of the seven most influential religious theories. He pointed out Freud attracted the attention of other psychoanalytic researchers to religious phenomena, and produced a large amount of literature on theories and treatments, and made a great contribution to contemporary religious interpretation. Kroeber (1920) concluded that Regardless of whether some of Freud's assumptions are Rure's, he has a keen insight. He puts forward a point of view that people will never ignore.

"In "Psychopathology in Daily Life" (SE 1901, 6.1–279) published by Freud in 1901, 45-year-old Freud considered the first psychiatric diagnosis of religion (theism) as a An obsessive neuropathy.” (Oppy, G., & Trakakis, N., 2009) This view has attracted the attention of many researchers. Kroeber (1920) emphasized that many of Freud's views are reasonable. For example, the correspondence between taboos and obsessive-compulsive neurosis is undeniable. Wullf (1991) explained Freud’s thoughts on the origin of religious doctrines from three themes, namely "religion is a neurosis", "evil ethnicity" and "Freud's historical novels" "Fuller (1994) summarized Freud's understanding of religion. Three themes: "Religion and the sense of the sea", "Religion is an illusion" and "Religion is a historical fact".

In the illusion of the future (1927), Freud gave a concrete explanation for the appearance of God in human society. Religion originated from the guilt of future generations trying to organize human communities to kill their ancestor tribes (Streng, 1985). Religion is essentially a neurosis that is universally obsessed with mankind. Religion is not necessary. On the contrary, it will restrict people from reaching psychological agreements, supreme intelligence and social development. Therefore, he suggested that people should “withdraw expectations from another world and concentrate all the released energy into life on earth”, so that people “will succeed in realizing a life that everyone can bear. The state of things. And civilization no longer oppresses anyone. The book expresses Freud’s hope that in the future science will surpass religion and reason will replace belief in God. (O'Neill, M.K. and Ahe Tal, 2009) 

1.The theory of obsessive-compulsive neurosis

To understand why Freud believed that religion is the universal obsessive neurosis of mankind, we first need to understand Freud's theory of the mechanism of obsessive neurosis. Freud proposed that human psychology can be divided into three parts: Id, self and superego. id is the completely unconscious, impulsive, childlike part of the mind that seeks immediate pleasure and satisfaction. The superego is the moral part of the mind. (Freud, 1962) When the rational self fails to strike a balance between the inherently unrealistic hedonism of the superego and the equally unrealistic morality of the superego, and to alleviate the anxiety caused by conflict, it may adopt Defense mechanisms include denial, suppression, cancellation, rationalization and substitution. If these defense mechanisms are not sufficient to resist or alleviate these anxieties, neurological conflicts may occur to replace basic impulses and motivations. Because the instinct of ID is in the subconscious domain, it is difficult for the self to identify the real object of conflict, so people will suffer inexplicable fear and anxiety. "In obsessive neurosis and delusion, the form of symptoms is very valuable to the self, because they gain the self, not certain advantages, but narcissistic satisfaction, otherwise there is no. The obsessive neurotic construction The system makes him feel better than others. This is because he is particularly clean or very conscientious, which makes his self-love to be likable. The paranoid delusional structure provides him with a keen perception and imagination. Fields of activity that are not easily found elsewhere" (Freud, 1936), the two conditions most likely to cause neurosis: the Oedipus complex and the fixation of the nervous system. Psychological development. Freud believed that most people are affected by substance and sexual desire at birth. (Freud and Brill, 1918) In the early stages of development, people express their sexual desires through the desire to suck milk from breast milk. This is a desire driven purely by biological instinct, and has nothing to do with moral and secular rules. This stage is called the "oral stage". Then, the baby will enter the "anal period" (Freud, 1962), during which the Oedipus complex appears. Its name comes from the ancient Greek tragedy Oedipus, in which Oedipus fell in love with her mother and killed his father. The meaning of Oedipus complex lies in the profound meaning of the story, that is, the complicated relationship between son and mother and the relationship between parents and son. In the spiritual life of Oedipus, we can see that the Oedipus complex refers to the possessiveness of the mother and the exclusivity of the father. Children are instinctively jealous of their father, because the father will steal the mother's love from the mother. They worry that their father will be jealous and will be punished for it. At the same time, they hope that they can grow into a strong person, become a father, and win all the love of their mother again. The children are in a helpless state. On the one hand, they are afraid of their father. On the other hand, they need the protection of their father and feel attached to their father. In this emotional struggle, children need to strike a balance between instinctive drive and rational inhibition drive, otherwise they will develop neurosis.

2. the relationship between obsessional neuroses and religion

 2.1 Development environment

Freud pointed out in Totem and Taboo (1918) that religion also comes from the Oedipus complex. Religion originated in the early days of human society. At that time, people could not use reason to deal with various forces inside and outside, but could only suppress or deal with them with pure emotional force. The mental state of our ancestors has a lot in common with the mental state of our children, and both have ignorance and intellectual weakness. For prehistoric humans, it cannot resist natural disasters, nor can it explain the reasons behind them. They were very anxious, facing various natural disasters, the unknown world after death and their uncontrollable fate, which made them very scared at the time. In a state of helplessness, just like a child who needs the protection of a father, primitive people also hope to be protected by a stronger person. Therefore, they fantasize about the image of God, the stronger image of the father. Religion is the reproduction of childhood experiences. Faced with dangerous, uncontrollable and incomprehensible internal or external forces, our ancestors seem to think of childhood experiences and recall the wisdom and power of our father. As long as they abide by his father's wishes and avoid his father's taboos, he can obtain his father's love and protection. People rely on religion to resist threats, just as children eliminate their insecurities by relying on their fathers. It can be seen that the environment in which religion appears is similar to the environment in which childhood neurosis occurs.

2.2 Development mechanism

Religion and neurosis also have the same development mechanism. As mentioned above, neurosis is an irrational response to the conflict between the superego and the self. In ancient times, people faced the pressure of the unknown world after death, nature, and chaos in interpersonal relationships. Because human beings are faced with these pressures and pains, there is an urgent need for mental anesthetics to relieve stress and pain, and religion is the product of this need. "They are the fantasy realization of mankind's oldest, most powerful and most urgent desire." (Freud, 1927) Religion provides mankind with at least one way to fight against external crises and establish a moral world order. Satisfying the requirements of justice and prolonging the secular existence in future life provides a local and time frame in which to realize these aspirations. When taboo, there must be latent desire. (Freud, 2007) Although religious taboos have helped people develop civilization, the reasons why people suppress religious beliefs and drive themselves to become religious doctrines are not the result of rational thinking, that is, social harmony and stability require these behaviors, but are Religious taboos. Divine punishment and loss of protection from God. God is only the spiritual product of human beings, and there is no actual evidence of human existence. "After all, the truth contained in religious doctrine is so distorted and systematically disguised that it cannot be regarded as truth by all mankind" (Freud, 1927). Therefore, religion is an irrational mechanism for people to cope with anxiety, and it is a kind of obsessive-compulsive disorder. In a later Freud study, he also found that the basis of Moses was similar to the development of neurosis, that is, early trauma-defense-latency-neurosis-partial recall of suppressed substances. (Freud, 1939). Initially, the Jews killed their leader Moses, which traumatized his soul, so they tried to cover up this crime with words in order to defend themselves spiritually. The painful memory of Moses' murder enters the dormant stage, until the memory of this memory is regenerated under the new environment and conditions. In the end, in the hearts of the Jews, the religious sentiments of the Morse were rekindled and even doubled.

2.3 Symptoms

Religion and neurosis also have the same development mechanism. As mentioned above, neurosis is an irrational response to the conflict between the superego and the self. In ancient times, people faced the pressure of the unknown world after death, nature, and chaos in interpersonal relationships. Because human beings are faced with these pressures and pains, there is an urgent need for mental anesthetics to relieve stress and pain, and religion is the product of this need. "They are the fantasy realization of mankind's oldest, most powerful and most urgent desire." (Freud, 1927) Religion provides mankind with at least one way to fight against external crises and establish a moral world order. Satisfying the requirements of justice and prolonging the secular existence in future life provides a local and time frame in which to realize these aspirations. When taboo, there must be latent desire. (Freud, 2007) Although religious taboos have helped people develop civilization, the reasons why people suppress religious beliefs and drive themselves to become religious doctrines are not the result of rational thinking, that is, social harmony and stability require these behaviors, but are Religious taboos. Divine punishment and loss of protection from God. God is only the spiritual product of human beings, and there is no actual evidence of human existence. "After all, the truth contained in religious doctrine is so distorted and systematically disguised that it cannot be regarded as truth by all mankind" (Freud, 1927). Therefore, religion is an irrational mechanism for people to cope with anxiety, and it is a kind of obsessive-compulsive disorder. In a later Freud study, he also found that the basis of Moses was similar to the development of neurosis, that is, early trauma-defense-latency-neurosis-partial recall of suppressed substances. (Freud, 1939). Initially, the Jews killed their leader Moses, which traumatized his soul, so they tried to cover up this crime with words in order to defend themselves spiritually. The painful memory of Moses' murder enters the dormant stage, until the memory of this memory is regenerated under the new environment and conditions. In the end, in the hearts of the Jews, the religious sentiments of the Morse were rekindled and even doubled.

3. Conclusion

In the end, Feud used analogy to conclude that religious beliefs are human obsessive neurosis. In the past study, he explained The transformation of human belief from animal gods to human gods reflects the paternal complex, which is also the cause of obsessive neurosis. Faced with the anxiety from nature and the impulse and drive of nature, ancient humans created God, the product of illusion, to meet their needs and desires to protect against natural disasters. Freud also pointed out that neurotic patients and religious believers exhibit similar symptoms. Just as there is a need to cure neurosis, religion should also be isolated from humans in an appropriate way.

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